Ethical Issues In Biotechnology Research

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Biotechnology can be defined as the use of microorganisms, plants or animal cells or components to produce products and processes useful to humans. The term ‘Biotechnology’ was coined by Karoly Ereky in 1919.
Biotechnology essentially deals with industrial scale production of biopharmaceutical and biological. The application of biotechnology include therapeutics, diagnostics , genetically modified crops for agriculture, processed food, bioremediation, waste treatment and energy production.
Biotechnology have the following three critical research area
• To provide the best catalyst in the form of improved organism, usually a microbe or pure enzyme.
• To create optimal conditions through engineering for a catalyst to act
• Downstream processing
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• Recombinant DNA Technology is a modern molecular diagnostic technique.
• Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) is based on the principle of antigen – antibody interaction. Infection by pathogen can be detected by the presence of antigens or by detecting the antibodies synthesised against the pathogen.
Ethical issues in Biotechnology Applications

 The modifications/usage of living organisms for public services (food/medicine for example) has also created problems with patents granted for the same.
 In order to control these issues, the Indian Government has set up organisations such as GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee), which make decisions regarding the validity of GM research and the safety of introducing GM organisms for public services.
 Public is concerned that certain companies are being granted patents for products and technologies that make use of the genetic materials, plants and other biological resources that have long been developed by farmers and indigenous people of a specific region/country.
 If attention is not paid immediately to counter these patent applications , other countries/individuals may encash on our rich

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