Positivist argue human beings to discover the world which is made of quantifiable, perceptible and detectable by giving it sense and description. The ontology of positivism research paradigm advocate the scientific research and stresses in order for something to exist must be proven through experiment and observation. The positivist do not reject self-evident proposals particularly on the unknown phenomena. The positivist argues that reality is not influenced by social construction. • EPISTEMOLOGY Positivist support the idea of John Locke which states that human mind is blank at birth.
Explain the problem of “paradigmatic incommensurability” in the philosophy of science and demonstrate, using at least 3 examples, how to attain commensurability in a scientific research project. INTRODUCTION Learning about research within a social science context is treated with more rigor that than of commercial research since there is the foundation lies on a philosophical role. The two main paradigms that used namely that of positivism and interpretivism (seen in some readings as constructivism) outline the two perspectives that researchers use as models to guide the interpretation of research projects. This essay treats with the issue of paradigmatic commensurability which outlines the use of the paradigm approach to research and guides
The Shaman approach to education allows educators to self-reflect to understand the deficiencies of the school curriculum and develop mechanisms for improving the outcomes of the learning process. Constructivism, on the other hand, is an educational and learning theory in which meaning making is a central result of education. It promotes personal understanding and knowledge creation. As such, a constructivist approach contends that objects and events have no absolute meaning; rather individuals interpret objects and events differently and create meaning based on personal cultural, social, and political contexts. Thus, the concept of learning as a social process and the constructivist approach would provide students with different points of view on a given topic that would make it easy for them to understand difficult topics.
The teaching methods based on constructivist approach are very effective to help students understand, recall and apply the essential information, concepts and skills. They are used to make lessons interesing, activate students ' prior knowledge, help to develop and organise information and promote questioning. Slavin( 1994,p. 237-239) discusses the important concepts of this approach as mentioned below: Advance organisers: general statements given before instruction that links new information to existing knowledge to help students process new information by activating background knowledge, suggesting relevance and encouraging accommodation; Analogies: highlighting the similarities between things that are otherwise unlike, to help students learn new information by relating it to concepts they already have; and Elaboration: the process of reflection on the new material in a way that connects it with existing
This does not exclude a quantitative approach being associated with a post-positivist approach. In contrast, for a researcher who favors interpretive, knowledge is a matter of interpretation (Schutt, 2009) so that the quest for understanding the complex world of lived experience demands that the researcher interact with the research objects/participants to get the viewpoint. The investigator favored a post-positivist approach since he believes that human knowledge can be challenged and modified in light of further investigation. Following is a description of the methodology that was followed for this
So, for this study constructivism theory as theoretical perspective is selected for qualitative approach to gain the meaning, understanding, experiences and opinion of the stakeholders about prospect and quality of teaching and learning in universities. The approbation of the constructivist theory in this research is based on the assumptions that “all knowledge and meaning are contingent upon human practices, being constructed in and out of interaction between individuals and their world, and developed and transmitted within an essentially social context” (Crotty, 1998, p. 42). Human beings in the constructivist spirit are described as not only engaging themselves with the world and making sense of it, but “they are all born into the world of meaning” (Crotty, 1998, p. 54) This theoretical approach is adopted to let the (stakeholders) participants to discern their understanding and perceptions about the quality of teaching and learning in universities and in this way the researcher has access both directly and indirectly assess the quality through observations and stakeholders’ approach and their perceptions seek to better assist and understand the quality in teaching and learning. The stakeholders’ approach has been used in literatures since Freeman (1984) introduced in his book strategic Management: A stakeholder approach. The concept of the stakeholder approach to quality has been labeled as an effective tool for organizational improvement and sustainability (Boesso & Kumar, 2009; Elijido-Ten, 2007; Freeman, 1994; Goodpaster, 1991; Johansson, 2008; Mitchell, Agle, & Wood, 1997; Rowley, 1997).
The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning. “In contrast, the constructivist perspective views knowledge as a form of mental representation, construction of the human mind” (Löbler, 2006, p. 28). Constructivism advocates that learning process is about memorizing information’s and repeating what teachers say. In a
The central theme underscoring the essay, “What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important?” is educating budding researchers and research community on the importance of ‘responsible conduct of research (RCR).’ The author D.B. Resnik deftly engages the readers and takes them through a journey that introduces the concept of basic ethical norms that act as guidelines for desirable behaviour in personal context. He gradually expands the scope and discusses the applicability of ethical norms across various professional domains and varying research contexts. Through his cases, he gives a flavour of various forms of ethical issues i.e. research misconduct, ethical deviations and ethical dilemmas.
The paradigm of Positivism seems to be combined of Rationalism and Empiricism. Positivism focus on a priori knowledge same Rationalism but in difference point, Positivist beliefs in nature of reality that can be verified by science process but don’t belief in the innate. The innate knowledge seems to be skeptically for them and trying to examination about the reality for support warranted beliefs. While Empiricism is rejected the innate knowledge but emphasizes truth-reliable process. It’s look like the one of science process, Such measurement which needs to be reliability and generalize outcomes.
A few systems are extremely hypothetical and philosophical and are contending about the way of learning itself, or the way of life and other profound things. Different approaches are common to the point that they don't have to be composed about much as the world everywhere acknowledges for instance that the exploratory approach is the same all over and under every situation. Subjective examination is the technique typically associated with the social constructivist standard which emphasizes the socially constructed nature of reality. It is about recording, inspecting and trying to uncover the deeper essentialness and enormity of human lead and experience, including clashing feelings, practices and sentiments. Masters are more into obtaining an in-depth and compound understanding of