Throughout history, we have seen many unethical forms of human research done, which have ultimately led to dire consequences (Brandt, Lecture 7, Slide 6). Today, ethical research tools have been put forward to determine when experimentation for human research should be allowed. Equipoise is the balance between two conflicting demands, where one demand will promote the welfare of the patient while the other demand will promote the advancement of medical knowledge (Freedman, 1987, 95). There are two types of equipoise: clinical equipoise and therapeutic equipoise. Clinical equipoise looks at the balance through the scientific community, whereas therapeutic equipoise looks at the balance through the judgment of a single physician (Weiger et al., 2013, 93).
An essential part of modern society relied on trust, especially the trust of doctors and scientists. People had the right to make an informed decision about their bodies and body parts. People had a right to their body parts, both attached and cell samples collected by doctors. The actions that the medical professions made will continue to affect future generations in both positive and negative ways. In the contemporary biographical novel, the Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, Rebecca Skloot used logical opinions to argue about the importance of consent to reveal the lack of morality from those in the medical field which continues to persist today.
Originally the German government passed laws to exclude Jews from society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws of 1935. A network of concentration camps was built starting in 1933 and ghettos were built following the outbreak of World War II in 1939. In 1941, as Germany conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized paramilitary units called Einsatzgruppen were used to kill around two million Jews and "partisans", mostly in mass shootings. By the end of 1942, victims were being systematically moved by freight trains to specially built murder camps where, if they survived the journey, most were regularly murdered in gas chambers. The campaign of extermination continued until the end of World War II in Europe in
Another doctor of the holocaust was Dr herta oberheuser killed children with oil and evipan injection. He removed limbs and vital organs and he rubbed glass and sawdust in wounds. People who underwent the experiments were mentally scarred forever. In the account of eva kor she said she will never forget what josef mengele did to her and her sister. She said she went through a series of injects that made her fever rise.
The Holocaust occurred because the Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler, saw Jews as an inferior race and a threat to Germany (History.com staff, 2009). Between 1933 and 1945, concentration camps to hold Jews captive had become a factor in the lives of Germans. Nazi Germany and its allies had established more than 40,000 camps and other incarceration camps where forced labor, mass murder
They held the highest population in all and every camp. In retaliation to Jews for killing a German policeman in self defense on July 31, 1940 the nazis carried out a public mass execution(“Holocaust”). This day was later named “Bloody Wednesday”.They were tortured by anxiety, were insecure of the present, torn between hope and despair, and felt helpless. There were many people who were persecuted during the Holocaust that weren’t Jewish: spouses of Jews, Roma Gypsies, resisters, priests and pastor, Jehovah Witnesses, political enemies, homosexuals, the disabled, and African-German descent. Spouses of Jews had to choose between getting a divorce or being sent to concentration camps along with their Jewish Spouse.
Unit 731 It was in Manchuria, China, from 1938 to 1945, that Shiro Ishii and his Japanese army carried out experiments that resulted in things arguably more inhumane than the Holocaust. Unit 731 held Chinese, Russian, Manchurian, and even some American prisoners and used them as human guinea pigs before most of them ultimately died. Biological weapons were used against these prisoners as test subjects, resulting in up to 400,000 deaths. The goal of this paper is to bring light to what really happened in this research and development unit and discuss whether or not these things are validated. Unit 731 was the brainchild, or idea and invention, of General Shiro Ishii.
The two main experiments they performed on the prisoners were medical experiments and an experiment to find a “cure” for homosexuals. The medical experiments took place in a chamber where they would take Jews, gypsies, and mentally ill prisoners and intentionally infused them with various infections, against their will, to test out vaccinations and to find treatments for contagious diseases. These tests resulted in hundreds of deaths. Buchenwald was also apart of the pink triangle, which was when any homosexuals entered the camp, they would put a pink upside-down triangle on their sleeve to indicate their “kind”. In 1944, Dr. Carl Vaernet, Danish physician, claimed he had found a “cure” for homosexual inmates by performing a series of experiments through hormonal transplants.
Victorious conquerors have taken prisoners of war in conflicts across human history. The foreign prison camps of the World Wars were infamous for their cruelty. However, many people are not aware that millions of German prisoners of war were placed in hundreds of camps all across America. These prisoners had their own unique experiences that differed significantly from prisoners held in foreign POW camps. Kurt Vonnegut voices his own traumatizing prisoner of war experience through the main character of Slaughterhouse-Five.
Following The Nuremberg Trials,Twelve Nazis received death sentences, eight were given life prison, and seventy-seven received prison sentences of different lengths. Two Nazis sentenced to death do not die with the others. Martin Bormann, Hitler’s adjutant, went missing and Hermann Goering, Hitler’s heir, committed suicide. Many Nazis escaped to other countries such as Argentina, The United States, and Canada. To conclude, the results of The Nuremberg Trials affected the lives of many
Under SS management, the Germans and their collaborators murdered more than three million Jews in the killing centers alone. Only a small fraction of those imprisoned in Nazi camps survived. (United States Holocaust Memorial Museum 1)”. The prisoners were tortured in ways beyond imagination. A special few prisoners would be selected by Nazi doctors, who would then perform dangerous medical experiments on them.
The Nuremberg Trial was the moment in history when sixteen German physicians were found guilty of crimes of war, crimes against humanity, and conspiracy for their actions during World War II. The trial led to the implementation of the Nuremberg code: a set of principles created to improve the ethical and moral treatment of research participants. Multiple criminal actions were taken by physicians during the war. Coleman quotes the trial transcripts when stating the physicians, “…took a consenting part in… medical experiments without the subjects’ consent…in the course of which experiments the defendants committed murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities, and other inhuman acts.” (Coleman et al. 17).
Clinical trials have been a boon to modern medicine by broadening the knowledge surrounding disease plaguing the human race and providing a tangible measure of the success and symptoms of treatments to combat these diseases. However each progression in science comes with unintended consequences, in the case of clinical trials it was corruption at the expense of the human volunteers. The Tuskegee Study, conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service and Tuskegee Institute in 1932, is an infamous example of clinical trials crossing the ethical line. However what is ethics? As noted by The Basics of Social Research by Earl Babbie, ethics are a social construction and subjective.
The first sermon condemning the euthanasia program was followed by two more, which went into greater detail, citing specific cases. Those who were opposed to the dictatorship of Hitler had these three sermons secretly copied by the hundreds of thousands. They were circulated throughout Germany and beyond. Those discovered dispersing copies of the sermons were killed and von Galen’s death was planned for having damaged the Third Reich so harshly. Von Galen continued to work to reduce the anguish of his countrymen through the remainder of the war.
Stemming from this controversy, debate regarding the moral obligation that individuals have to provide their cells for research has begun. The Lacks family would probably disagree with this argument, since their experience with a cell “abduction” has led to neglect, withholding of information, and a dehumanization resulting from lack of credit and recognition given to Henrietta Lacks. Despite all of the grievances and injustices, the Lacks cannot deny the scientific uses and progress enabled by the cells; one can only wonder what would have become of medical research if the HeLa line had not been