Different effects may have different intensities for different individuals. Probability allows us to weigh the likelihood of an effect happening, should we act in a certain way. Rule Utilitarianism is similar to Act Utilitarianism in that it uses the principle of utility, however, Rule Utilitarianism decides what one’s moral principles ought to be, rather than telling one how to act. Many individuals believe Act Utilitarianism is too difficult, but it is probable to reject Act Utilitarianism, while maintaining Rule Utilitarianism. Rule Utilitarianism is made up of two foundational principles: Principles of Rules and of Acts.
In this particular case, utilitarianism seems to support a conclusion that goes against a fight humanity already fought during the civil rights movement. Williams transitions from this example into the discussion of something he calls “the precedent effect”. The fear of this effect is that certain horrendous utilitarian acts might encourage people to behave immorally because of the precedent that may be set by these actions. Even though Williams admits that the precedent effect would only occur if people where confused as to why utilitarian’s had to commit a horrendous act, Williams believes that this confusion is a very real possibility if utilitarianism is ever used in
Utilitarianism can be described as a theory of ethics because it tells good or bad and also right or wrong. But some of the key concepts of utilitarianism talk about the conduct of public life. This makes the theory political. Utilitarianism key idea is an action is morally right or wrong depending on their positive or negative effects. The only effects important actions are positive and negative
It is our intent to focus on the practical application of ethics in decision making. We need to start by creating some clarifying distinctions to facilitate our purpose. Ethics in decision making have always impacted our choices for words and actions. Hence, according to me, Ethical theory framework would result in ethical action. Future conflict between a person's moral choice and an organization's ethical decisions are most easily addressed as someone seeks to join the organization.
For example, people do not need to look at the intensity when they are deciding what chips to buy at the grocery store, they can simply just choose the one they like best. Rule utilitarianism attempts to fix the flaws of act utilitarianism by being stricter on how we should make our decisions. However, rule utilitarianism has the dilemma that sometimes rules can come into conflict with one another. Suppose someone told you a secret and you promised not to tell anyone, but you later find out that secret will harm someone else. Rule utilitarianism holds that people should keep their promises, but also that they should work to not harm anyone.
From a consequentialist viewpoint however the action is morally right because the end justifies the means (Piercey, 2001), therefore this viewpoint seems the most normal. However during the second scenario within the movie consequentialism no longer plays a role to support the moral theory. Here it is evident the Gekko uses Fox for his own personal gain – manipulating a person as means to an end. Both theories seem to have their benefits and it is a real problem choosing which theory is true and which characters are morally right, if any.  The first thing I noted when I listened to Gekko’s speech was that he firstly did not speak about greed as much but rather the appraisal and satisfaction of overpaid corporate executives.
Under this approach, an action is considered morally bad because of some characteristic of the action itself, not just because the product of the action is bad. Wells Fargo unethical practices demonstrates unethical behavior, under deontological ethical theories as its employees duty to operate in an honest and fair fashion , in providing services to the public. Wells Fargo codes of conduct does not permit sales practices of these sort, therefore the employees who participated in these practices made unethical decisions. Unfortunately there was a wrong-doing on a massive scale. The acts of unethical behavior were conducted by both the employees and management.
However, in the West, there is more of a likelihood that normative ethical theories such as consequentialist theories like Utilitarianism which can be compared to HRM being accepted. This theory was adopted in the Western world during the enlightenment period thus, resonates to its past. It makes an assumption about humans and the world and tends to ‘promote happiness, condemning the wrong actions’ (Airan, 2013). It crosses paths with HRM as they both make decisions through what can be seen as a cost-benefit analysis (Crane and Matten, 2007). Whilst utility of any action must be judged to benefit everyone, this faculty of thinking is also similar to Egoism but differs as it stresses the importance of individual utility.
When making decisions, there would be various examples of thought processes basing on the degree of ethical development of the individual. People who are less ethically developed may think that they should act ethically since they will be punished if they do not. Besides, people who have more progressed moral advancement may contend that they ought to act morally in light of the fact that their nation's laws say they ought to. People at the highest level of ethical development may claim that they should act ethically because it's always right to do so, regardless of what the results and costs are. In fact, there is a great amount of ethical issues commonly happening that create negative effects on the public confidence such as extortion, bribery or dishonest advertising
Introduction Ethics and Governance are about ethical or unethical of the decision made by a leader or top-level management. Ethics is the key to determine right or wrong. It shows what is right and what is wrong when doing a decision. Every country has different perspectives of views on moral. I agree that every leader must have an ethical concept of knowledge to make ethical decision.