It commits to the betterment of human kind and one 's self at the same time. Nevertheless, Psychological Egoism Ethical Egoism has two different meaning. Psychological Egoism is the descriptive version that believes every decision a person makes is because the
Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome. Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical.
Kant wrote the Metaphysics of Ethics (1797) where he described his ethical system that is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality. Moreover, human actions of any kind undertaken by the person is a result of the sense of duty dictated by reason. Kant also divided reason into two parts; hypothetical imperative which dictates that human actions were performed for a certain end, and the other is categorical imperative which is the basis of morality: “Act as if the maxim of your action were to become through your will a general natural law.” Thus, freedom is not a lawless freedom of anarchy but rather of self-government, the freedom to obey with consciousness on the universal laws manifested through reason. The end of every freedom is to ensure the welfare of each individual in which reason dictates toward an ideal
Consequentialism is a type of normative ethical theory, such theories provide criteria for moral evaluation and may recommend rules or decision procedures for people to follow in acting morally. Consequentialism in its most general form, hold that the moral quality of an action is completely determined by its consequences. Moral quality is a function of consequences and nothing else. The consequentialist theories of moral evaluation have two parts. One part is an account for what is good and the other part is an account of how to approach the good.
The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil.
(Hunter, 2001, p.306) There is no exception for rational individuals in the world to escape from the law of categorical imperative. The presentation of categorical imperative is somehow like a test of morality (Hunter, 2001, p.306), rather than just a moral concept. Moral maxim is of vital necessity in the determination of morality for an action. From Kant’s view, an action can be treated as moral when it is motivated by one’s maxim, while it also suits the universal law. (Hunter, 2001, p.306) Therefore, it can be concluded that moral maxim is the standard of deciding whether an action is moral or not.
MORAL PERCEPTIONS Moral perception is a term used in ethics to denote the discernment of the morally salient qualities in particular situations. In order to understand this, we must understand what ethics is all about. Ethics, also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. It talks about what the best way for living is. It teaches us what conduct is right and wrong and under what circumstances.
Focusing on the emotions of the people and taking care of their passion is a moral and ethical norm which should never be forgotton. Kant mainly considered this value in his theory as an important factor. Objective theory: Objective theory is a give and take theory in which beyond the desires passions and feelings of a certain person the desires of is considered with equal morality. Basically it is the opinion of everyone. Kant’s ethical theory is based on objective morality that involves the happiness of everyone.
For him, if our mind agreed with our voluntary actions to some law then it is considered as good but if our mind disagreed to it then it is considered as bad. Things that are good are those things which we are comfortable to deal with and things that are bad are those things that we could not fathom; pain and sorrows. In 19th century (late modern period) Moral philosophy is still a huge shot for the philosophers. Immanuel Kant demonstrated his thoughts about morality and rationality. For him as a rational being, one would not only ask for the right thing to do yet would also make a list on the things that he/she would want to attain in life or in other words, things that he/she would ought to do.
In The Categorical Imperative, Kant emphasizes that human autonomy is the essence of morality. He says that one must act not only in accordance to duty, but for the sake of duty However, According to the Utilitarianism, Mill emphasizes that the actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness Immanuel Kant is the founder of the Kantian branch of ethics and morality, and his theories are personally my favorite theory of ethics so far. According to the utilitarianism, the best action is the one that maximizes utility. However, in Kant’s moral philosophy, people
Additionally, she should be honest, trusted and efficient. Aristotle supports that, the character is revealed through action. Thus, Rafa failed to obey the code which established with the intention to obtain the ethical nature of law. The Code of Conduct 2011 is written principles concentrates on providing positive outcomes to protect the client’s interests. It illustrates certain mandatory principles and specific chapters, which can declare whether solicitors have ethical character.