From the 16th to 18th century, countries in Europe were experiencing new ideas and reforms. Philosophers like Locke believed in social equality. They have discussed the purpose of a government and spread their ideas. Locke’s ideas led to the revolution in France, who didn’t have rights under absolute monarch’s control. After the French gained their rights, people in Haiti started to fight because they wanted to have the same rights that French gained during the reform.
One his theories, stated in his book called Leviathan said that people are not able rule themselves because of how selfish mankind is and they need to be ruled by an iron fist. His political theory was that was also stated in Leviathan was that we should respect government authority under all circumstances to avoid violence. Hobbes was scared of the outcome of the social contract which meant people could get rid of the government if they were unhappy with what they were getting. In order to make well with the social contract he states in Leviathan that people should be completely obedient to the government. His reasoning was that if there was no government, there would be chaos.
This where the governor has too much power so they try to slow the power down by limiting the time that he is in office. If you leave too much power in one person's hands it could go bad very fast by some personal rights being taken away. They could also abuse power by completely changing major things to make things the way they like them. This is why the control of the abuse of power is a democratic feature of Colonial America. Economic Freedom is a major undemocratic feature of Colonial America.
Mill basically inherited the anti-imperialist views from his predecessor liberal thinkers like Bentham, James Mill and Adam Smith (Sullivan, 1983). Bentham, James Mill and Smith have argued against imperialism and have negated the idea that it serves any economic profit to England. Instead they believed that colonisation led to disproportionate capital flow to colonies. They also negated the argument of colonies being an outlet for capital surplus. They maintained that colonisation can only be a remedy for capital surplus if greater amount of England’s capital is not invested in governance of colonies which they regarded is the case with most of the England’s colonies.
Unit 2: Absolutism and Revolution Portfolio In this unit, you examined the American and French Revolutions. The American Revolution, sparked by conflict over British rule and influenced by Enlightenment ideas, broke colonial ties with a monarchy and yielded a new nation. The French Revolution, inspired by the American Revolution as well as the Enlightenment, freed French citizens from an absolute monarchy and secured equality before the law for all male citizens. In your unit study, you explored the causes and effects, characteristics, as well as the consequences, of each of these revolutions. What did they have in common?
The goal of the American Revolution was to get away from the British government and be free. The Declaration of Independence was basically announcing them as not the thirteen colonies but as the first thirteen states of the U.S. The goals of both of these are different for a reason, because the French Revolution wanted a government and the American Revolution wanted to get away from their government. The revolutions were similar because they both wanted a different ruler and they both had absolute monarchs. They were also similar because they both had social inequalities which was basically if you were in a different social class you were treated differently.
Consequently, a limited government was created in response to these new thoughts. Furthermore, this new type of government was extremely revolutionary because it changed the way that the citizens had thought or viewed about the government. Two Enlightenment philosophers that influenced the creation of the government were John Locke and Montesquieu. John Locke had the belief that everyone had natural rights (life, liberty, property) and that if the government failed to protect these rights, they could be overthrown and replaced. Also, Montesquieu’s idea of the separation of powers helped shape the government.
The Federalists and Democratic-Republicans almost never agreed about anything. The founders of the parties had ideas about how to run the country that were so different that they had to create two separate political parties. They disagreed on almost every topic they discussed, but some major feuds were about whether our economy should rely on manufacturing or agriculture, our federal government should be led by wealthy or average people, our federal government should be stronger or the states should have more power, and what country we should support during the French revolution. The founder of the Federalist Party was named Alexander Hamilton. He was born in the West Indies and raised on a Caribbean island called St. Croix.
One Enlightenment thinker John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Government in 1690 which explained the right of the governed to overthrow their government if it denies them their unalienable rights. Revolutionary leaders followed this line of thought and used Locke’s theory of natural rights, life liberty and property, to justify their rebellion. During the time of Salutary Neglect colonies formed their own representative governments, which served under Parliament and applied colonial taxes. The colonists had no problem with taxes they just wanted their representative bodies to applied them, not Parliament with its virtual representation, During the dawn of the Revolution in 1776 Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense which spread republican ideals throughout the colones. This document, which sold 100,000 copies in 3 months quickly spread amongst the colonists and solidified their common political motivations.
Instead, they adopted a concept of positive liberty. In their view, the implementation of negative freedom embodied in the laissez faire liberal economic policies in the most deprived of the freedom of the American people, and almost all of the progressive reformers believe that excessive loyalty to laissez-faire liberalism has seriously damaged the American democracy. Therefore, in order to guarantee people's freedom and maintain democratic system in a very complex industrial society, liberalism must be adjusted and amended, and positive liberty should be used instead of negative freedom. Under the liberalism based on positive freedom, citizens and governments should accept this, and democracy requires the responsibility of society and the protection of
Baron de Montesquieu argued that separation of powers is ideal in a government. That is used today in the United States government. Separation of powers is ideal so that one person doesn’t get all of the power in the government. The way that the United States uses separation of powers is through checks and balances. Checks and balances is used to keep the government from getting too powerful in one branch, the Executive Branch can veto bills from the Legislative Branch, but the Legislative Branch can overrule the veto.
Franklin’s work made it easier for the colonists to understand the financial restriction Britain had on the colonies and how to overcome the restrictions to gain financial freedom. In addition to financial freedom, another freedom that paved the way to independence was political freedom. Thomas Paine was one of, if not the most, important writers on political freedom. In Thomas Paine’s work Common Sense, he explains the faults of the British Parliament and the assets of America. This work by Paine played a major role in the Revolution by influencing the colonists and showing them the need for political freedom.
The original political parties in America differed on their views of allying with the British or the French. The Federalists wanted to ally the British monarchy, yet the Democratic-Republicans wanted to ally with the French. The Federalist party aspired to ally with Great Britain for because of its extreme stability. The Democratic-Republicans hoped for an ally with France because of the party’s previous positive relations and their support of the French Revolution. The Federalist party believed the strongest ally for our emerging country was the world power that was Great Britain.
At first, the American colonies were happy to be control by the Great Britain, The British Parliament didn’t bother the colonists very much. However, after the French Indian War, The Great Britain need money to repay a huge debt. The British Parliament said the purpose of the Great Britain to fought the war is to protect the American Colonies from French, so the American Colonies should help to pay the debt for the war. For this reason, the British Parliament has been passing laws to place taxes on the American colonies. However, most American colonists didn’t agree to help the Britain to repay the debt.
Some colonial gentleman even changed their religious beliefs to reflect European ideas that God only played an indirect affair with humans. Educated colonists were especially interested in the new ideas that showed the Age of Enlightenment what it really was. How did the Glorious Revolution affect colonial politics? • The dethroning of King James in England and at the end of the Dominion of New England showed all of the success of the representative government over dictatorship. Colonists came to see their legislatures as colonial alternatives of parliament on its own.