The historical development of the world from 1690 to 1830 wouldn’t be what it was if it weren’t for John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government. Locke’s Second Treatise not only sparked individualism, but also revolutions, and was a guide to the creations of declarations around the world. Two main revolutions and declarations that Locke’s ideas inspired were the American Revolution and the French Revolution.
From the 16th to 18th century, countries in Europe were experiencing new ideas and reforms.
John Locke was a philosopher and political scientist. He had many interests and produced a number of writings that influenced future leaders. One of these leaders was Thomas Jefferson, who was involved with the aid of America and the act gaining independence from Britain. The Declaration of Independence and Locke’s views on government contain many similar aspects. These ideas includes the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (natural rights); the protection that is provided by the government for these rights; and the altering or abolishment of government if it fails to provide and protect the rights of the people. There may also be some differentiating ideas regarding these two sources. An example of this may be that, even though Jefferson and Locke agreed that the people should be able to overthrow the government if their rights were encroached upon, Hobbes believed that this would lead to a state of nature, which wouldn’t end greatly.
Introductory Paragraph (description of theory) John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) is a English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of the Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism”. Locke got a scholarship to Oxford University where he spent 30 years at Oxford, studying, tutoring, and writing. He wrote influential political science and philosophy. Locke 's famous theory had to do with the Social Contract theory. The Social Contract covers the origin of government and how much authority a state should have over an individual.
Many of his thoughts and principles were studied and adopted by the founders of the United States and are evident in documents, just like the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Locke emphasized the freedom of humans, the equality of all before God, regulation and authorities through consent of the governed, and he justified the overthrow of presidency when it fails the people. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was another prominent thinker from the Enlightenment era. Rousseau differed with Locke about the position of the individual in relation to the country, with Rousseau emphasizing the importance of the ruled being worried in
Throughout history, there is a vast majority of opinions solely on one event in history but in order for someone to grasp an idea of something, such as the American Revolution, one has to look and evaluate the different ideas on a historical event. In the case of the American Revolution authors Charles Inglis, Thomas Paine, Howard Zinn, and speaker Patrick Henry had to compare and contrasting ideas. Inglis and Zinn identified the revolution as something that was unnecessary as there are more advantages in staying with Britain and as a result of the revolution there are more problems, while Paine and Henry suggested that the revolution is needed due to the subordination and inflicted pain to the colonists, and King George III not being able
This sharing of power added ideas from the newly formed government that focused on the freedoms of citizens in England. Voltaire contended that the English government had successfully limited the power of the monarchy by affirming the power of the nobility, criticizing the French feudal system for its inability to share political power amongst the citizens of France (6). Advocating a limited monarchy to hold political discussions concerning the progress of the French government towards liberal reforms during the French Revolution. Voltaire as an enlightened philosophe, published papers about the rationality of the French government, which influenced his attitude towards the English constitutional monarchy that implemented the enlightened ideal of liberty. John Locke wrote that the purpose of electing legislative powers was to create laws and rules that protected the “properties of all the members of society,” a natural right of mankind (5).
Locke ideas came before the American Revolution and were the foundation for the U.S Constitution and partly reasons for the revolution. Though these men were not able to live through or the start of their notions, the people took a hold of them impacting government systems. Niccolo Machiavelli was an
Rousseau, one of the most leading philosophers during the Enlightenment, had indeed left many of legendries behind. Not only his writings had caused many of the reactions at that time, but also influenced many writers’ aspects of the French Revolution and the overall understanding of inequality and the General Will. As one of the chief political theorists during the French Revolution who was also influenced by Rousseau’s ideas, Abbe Sieyes, published the pamphlet, “What is the Third Estate?” in 1789. This pamphlet was one of the documents that changed the world and lit the flame toward the French Revolution, as characterized by Joe Janes, a University of Washington professor (Janes).
The ideas of the Enlightenment influenced the American Revolution and the formation of the American Government. Firstly, The Enlightenment was a philosophical evolution that emphasized the aged ideas of the Greeks and Romans. In addition, the major philosophers of this time period were Voltaire, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Rousseau, Adam Smith and Isaac Newton. Their ideals include having an absolute monarch as a government (T.H), the separation of powers (Mont.), the government should not interfere with a free market economy (A.S), the freedom of speech (Volt.), the government could be overruled (J.L), and the government should rule according to the will of the people. Nevertheless, these ideals are important because they shaped the government that we have today.
The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke and Montesquieu helped create the basis for the Declaration of Independence, the American Revolution, and the creation of the government of the United States of America. John Locke’s philosophy of natural rights, like life, liberty, and property belonging to everyone, and Montesquieu’s philosophy of separation of powers, both influenced the rise of a state with no king when they declared their independence from the British in 1776, which was revolutionary and a radical idea since most countries were ruled by some kind of a monarchy during the early modern era. These philosophies were supported by human reason, unlike previous eras where ideals had been supported by religion, which is why they were thought to be so innovative and impressive. The American Revolution, fueled by Enlightenment ideals, later became an incentive for the French Revolution among other revolutionary movements challenging oppressive, widely accepted beliefs of
Edmund Burke was an English politician who disagreed with the principles of the French Revolution, taking then part on the British debate "Revolution Controversy" (1789-1795). One of the main reasons for this attitude is his criticism to those who insisted on implementing a regime of “liberty”, a term that involved different meaning for Burke considered. He was horrified by the anti-religious attitude in France and the triumph of atheism (Hampsher-Monk, 1996, p. 323 et ss). Moreover, he opposed to the influence by the Enlightenment movement on the French Revolution.
The enlightenment thinker Jean Jacques Rousseau sparked the idea that your government needs to actually needs benefit you and that the relationship is not one sided. This allowed people to question their own governments on a whole new scale and was another major contributor to the revolutions of the late seventeen
The inequity among the class structure that was implemented into the foundation of the ancient regime of France, is what prompted the severe formidable revolution in opposition to the government 's readiness to misemploy their sovereignty as well as their social position for the sole purpose of personal beneficial gain. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement emphasizing reasoning and understanding. It was a period of cognitive revolution, distinguished by extensive advances in science, philosophy, society and politics. These contemporary concepts heavily influenced philosophers such as John Locke, Voltaire, and Montesquieu, all masters of their craft. Although, the french revolution may have been influenced by the fundamentals of the
Before I really knew anything about the American Revolution, I believed that there was only one overarching reason that sparked the American Revolution; colonists just decided one day to become independent. As I have learned more about the Revolution, I discovered I was completely wrong. There are, in fact, two main viewpoints that commenced the Revolution: British loyalists and conservatives against the radicals. The loyalist and more conservative side was supportive of any of the rules, laws, taxes, or anything of that sort that British Parliament or monarchy put in place. In contrast, the radical’s craved for independence from the British government since they deemed their laws as useless and confining.