Ethiopian Learning Theory

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ackground of the Study In the past few decades, science education focused on ways to develop the cognition and metacognition of students during instructions. Recently, scientific argumentation emerged as a means to promote various aspects of scientific understanding and reasoning. Research findings showed that scientific argumentation assisted scientific knowledge construction (Osborne, Erduran, & Simon, 2004). Accordingly, an in depth understanding of science demanded the acquisition of scientific knowledge, basically an epistemic knowledge. A simple exploration of science teaching and learning in most Ethiopian science classrooms, arguably at any educational level, illustrated its encroachment with traditional lecture instruction (Negash,…show more content…
The alternative strategy must boost students’ practice of science. Dialogical argumentation is among such approaches. The implementation of such approaches had been supported by many theoretical frameworks. Among the many learning theories, sociocultural learning theory advocates the importance of talking in science. The main idea of the employment of the sociocultural learning theory approach to learning can be achieved using the effect of scientific argumentation that make easy students talking science(Lemke, 1990). In addition, scientific argumentation also induces active involvement of students in constructing their own scientific…show more content…
Epistemic knowledge of students and teachers is one of them. Teachers and students in science classroom should know the practice of science and the rationale for that practice. They should also explain theory, hypothesis and data and their significance to the knowledge building practice of science. Sandoval’s review of literature on epistemology summarized that understanding the tenets that make something as science enhances learning and practicing science(W. A. Sandoval, 2005). In analysing student’s oral or written arguments, science education researches adopted Toulmin’s pattern of argument (S. Erduran et al., 2004). Kelly and Takao developed a means to categorize the epistemic complexity of written arguments (G. J. Kelly & A Takao, 2002). Sampson et al also constructed an observational tool to assess scientific argumentation. This assessment tool embedded epistemic aspects of scientific argumentation as one component(Sampson, Enderle, & Walker,

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