The Oxford Dictionary defines the term ‘ethnicity’ as “the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition”. Ethnicity plays a decisive role in a subject’s construction of identity, as the sense of belonging to and identification with a distinct ethnical group equals a positioning in a cultural, historical and linguistic area and hence in a world in the sense of self-definition. In the postcolonial context, ethnicity often functions as an instrument of self-assertion or reconstruction of post-colonially destroyed or damaged cultural identity. Hence, ethnicity is used as a tool for re-centering by marginalized groups tool (Nünning, 195). According to Werner Sollors, Professor of African and African American Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the term ethnicity always refers to a relationship and not to a “thing-in-itself” (Sollors, 1990, 288).
It is something like involving many groups of individual with different religious background. Ethnic identity includes three things which are “self-identification,knowledge about the ethnic culture(traditions, customs, values, and behaviours) and feelings about belonging to a particular” ethnic group. (Intercultural Communication Process,pp 160). Ethnicity is not all about a person’s race it is about the religion, believes, culture and so on. For an example if we gather up people that look like Chinese probably Chinese, Japanese and Nepali each from their country., that would be hard to perceive from which country they are originated from.
Clarifying some of the reasons of how America characterizes races and ethnicities, instead of individuals just classifying themselves as Americans will be answered by the definition of symbolic ethnicity. Symbolic ethnicities are activities and culture studies that people do to relate to their ancestral background, also referred as family traditions that will continuously cycle. Although it does not
On the one hand, aspiration is provided by outside institutions (government, media, schools, etc.) which pushed a person to the particular ethnic group. On the other hand, hostility, discrimination and conflicts helped to consolidate a group of people against adversities and provided ground for group identity. According to the theory, the creation of ethnic identity depended on the larger societies. Hence, one can see that constructionist school focus mainly on historical force and social influence on ethnicity.
Because of this their cultural identification are being affected based on their beliefs, traditions and language are part of their identity. In the past decades, research are conducted on assessing bicultural identities and ethnic minorities on evaluating their psychological adjustment and sociocultural adaptation ( Schwartz, Montrogemery, & Briones 2006; van de Vijver & Phalet
Identity is a process of becoming constituted by points of similarity and difference. There is no essence to be discovered, rather, cultural identity is continually being created within the vectors of distinction and resemblance. Cultural identity is not an essence but a continually shifting description of ourselves. The political nature of identity is a “production” built on the the possibility of multiple, shifting and fragmented identities which can be articulated together in a variety of ways (Hall, 1990,
This definition allows each individual to define his or her race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity have been studied as they relate to employment outcomes such as hiring decisions, performance evaluations, pay, and workplace discrimination. Most research has concentrated on the differences in outcomes and attitudes between Whites and African Americans, with little study of issues relevant to Asian, Native American, and Hispanic populations. Race is a controversial issue. In many cases, even bringing up the topic of race and ethnicity is enough to create an uncomfortable silence.
However, Milton Gordon’s let us understand that “Ethnic group is a social group distinguished by race, religion or national origin. Ethnicity refers to a state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition. Constructively, Maciver (1981) emphasized the inclination of divergence in a social group through criticism or aversion. The social group would specify outside of their ethnic group as “they” and “we” as their own ethnic group. The concepts in ethnic such as ethnicity, ethnocentrism and discrimination can detrimental to the integration of patriotism toward Malaysia.
of people without names, no languages or as culture in which some manner of distinction between self and other , we and they are not made .the precise nature of colored identity is deeply contested. Some people insist it is purely racial; other identity is primarily political , other that has a strong cultural elements. apart from their differences who colored are while there are large ethnic religious and class variation among them. hey share enough of a common experience that is possible about to talk about them as a group . moreover, they know who they are .the issue s not just that they feel different .
It seemed obviously important considering the social conditions in which the racially and culturally different were either misrepresented or not presented at all. However recently this concept of celebration of difference by both minority ethnic as well as the people from the dominant culture is heading towards seemingly forward direction, but there is little agreement on what constitutes, or ought to constitute, the category of culturally different. The question of identity and power is a crucial factor in this