Indeed, the more the society is divided along ethnic lines the more vulnerable to ethnic mobilizations and ethnic conflict. The SNNPRS is an inter-ethnic conflict prone region of Ethiopia due to its multiethnic nature. As different research works indicated, the multi-ethnic regions of Ethiopia are more susceptible to inter-ethnic conflicts. Among the multi-ethnic areas of the region, SAPZ is one of the second most multiethnic Zone having eight major
Conflicts which appear as a mere inter-ethnic differences consisted of multifaceted variables (Lubo, 2012). He mentioned a number of ethnic conflicts that occurred after 1991 and their causes and concludes: “In spite of the creation of ethnic federalism as an endeavor to address inter-ethnic conflictual problems with Ethiopia” (ibid, 2012:66). Thus, the ethnic federal arrangement has become major source of ethnic conflicts over identity, territory and claims to power and resources. Moreover, according to Mesfin (2006), ethnic conflicts are the results of deliberate manipulation of ethnic sentiments and identities by either leader of ethnic groups or government officers who want to use conflicts as a means of securing economic and political
THE ETHNIC DIMENSIONS OF ELECTORAL CONFLICT IN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF KENYA (1992 - 2013) INTRODUCTION The electoral process in Africa’s democracies has, with few exceptions, been characterized by violence. Though violence has been a long-standing feature of the democratization process in Africa, its recent manifestations have assumed an unprecedented magnitude. This has tended to put the democratization process on the line in many African states, threatening the prospects of democratic stability and consolidation. Most recent examples include disputed and violent elections in Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, where the ethnicity has played centre stage in the electoral process. The violence that accompanied elections in Nigeria in 2003, and
If the ideology is effective the result is the domination. The ideology could come from customs, religious beliefs, or economic interest. Therefore, all the local forms of slavery from concubines to pawnship had legitimacy, despite such legitimacy not necessarily meant acceptance by the enslaved person. What I am trying to say is: slavery had an ideological framework in which the whole system rested. Consequently, when the Western abolition movement arrived in the Indian Ocean World (or other spaces beyond Americas) such framework was undermined because it was uncivilized.
However, in Somalia, clanship is hierarchical and has caused conflict and violence. Clanship is the basis for how Somali people use to identify themselves. Clanship in Somalia emerged from Somali people using it as a way to know their origins and from whom they descended from or their genealogy. It has is cultural construct that they have created that is now used in politics to mark their affiliations. In Somali politics, tribe would not be used interchangeably with clanship because tribe is used to describe a whole distinct group of people with different languages and origins.
The term ‘miscegenation’ originates from the Latin miscere (meaning ‘mix’) and genus (meaning ‘race’); and stands for the marriage or cohabitation between two people of different racial groups. Fear of miscegenation then becomes an important issue in the context of the racial tensions and colonization process of the subalterns by the white Europeans. The themes of racial conflicts, cultural prejudice and political inequality pervade almost all postcolonial writings, of which Derek Walcott’s compositions form a substantial part. In the poem “Goats and Monkeys” Walcott unearths the underlying theme of miscegenation-fears in the story of Othello and Desdemona and also interweaves it with the context of the colonization of Africa by the Europeans. About the Author The recipient of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Literature, Derek Walcott was born in Castries, Saint Lucia, the West Indies, on January 23, 1930.
It is an abiding assumption of nationalist ideology and historiography that the European languages are alien and the African languages are authentic. The processes of European linguistic appropriation and domestication have manifested itself in Africa. It is true that this reflects the failure by African states to fully decolonize their educational systems rooted in the neo-colonial phase, thus over powering the ancestral African identity. African communities are built upon strong pillars of culture and tradition in which language is the foundation to these pillars. Ngugi (1986:28) states that the African identities is built up by an array of unique and religious practices, one of the main element that hone these African tradition is their mother tongue languages.
One of these forms of politics is ethnic politics. Ethnic politics is the inclusion and exclusion of certain people from the government and resources based on ethnicity (Horowitz 1993). This idea of inclusion and exclusion from government, and advantages arising from supporting someone of the same ethnic group has encouraged politics in where government performance is not encouraged, but where performance towards one ethnic group is. This idea that electing a politician based on ethnicity will provide advantages has skewed the idea of government performance itself. In South Africa, parties are closely judged by race and the race credentials of the party (Ferree 2006).
The role of ethnicity in intra-state conflicts is widely debated and while some people feel that ethnicity is not the root cause of conflicts in Africa, others believe that ethnicity and tribalism play a major role in intra-state conflicts in Africa and in other parts of the world. Ethnicity is however a tool used by political leaders to mobilize their supporters in pursuit of power, power and resources. Ethnicity is a socially defined group of people who identify with each other based on common social, cultural or ancestral experiences. An ethnic group tends to share a cultural heritage, origin myth, ancestry, a history, homeland or dialect. Ethnic conflict is an armed conflict between ethnic groups.
As a result of this, there had been a constant uproar of border disputes between bilateral states. Ironically, several states have even gone to war in the defense of the borders demarcated by the European government. Consequently, these border disputes have resulted as a source of irritants in the political environment of Africa. This essay highlight the case of the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania. The dispute involves a dynamic history between the two states.