Ethnic Conflict In Ethiopia

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Conflicts which appear as a mere inter-ethnic differences consisted of multifaceted variables (Lubo, 2012). He mentioned a number of ethnic conflicts that occurred after 1991 and their causes and concludes: “In spite of the creation of ethnic federalism as an endeavor to address inter-ethnic conflictual problems with Ethiopia” (ibid, 2012:66). Thus, the ethnic federal arrangement has become major source of ethnic conflicts over identity, territory and claims to power and resources. Moreover, according to Mesfin (2006), ethnic conflicts are the results of deliberate manipulation of ethnic sentiments and identities by either leader of ethnic groups or government officers who want to use conflicts as a means of securing economic and political…show more content…
Factors such as failure of production, drought, and the failure of governments to serve the society they are meant to serve based on their contract and instead neglect particular ethnic group politically and economically as well as encroachment and the resultant competition over resources by neighboring ethnic groups may cause varying degree of conflicts. In addition to resources or power conflict between two or more ethnic groups’ ethno political disputes can also take place to protect their culture, group status, and identity against one another which are mostly non-negotiable at ethnic level (Pearson, 2001). It is in cognizant of the effect of ethicizing conflicts that Messay argues “ethnicity is a strong social force that must be properly considered and managed in order to obliterate its destructive roles in politics” (Messay 2001: 283). According to Balcha (2008), ethnic plurality would lead to conflict multiplication if it is not carefully approached and properly treated and its adverse effect will worse when the elites play a key role in the creation of ethnic ideology as a means to their political…show more content…
For instance, according to Kidane Mengisteab, the “Greater Horn region is one of the most conflict-ravaged areas on the African continent where the populations of the region have endured many inter-state and intra-state armed conflicts during the post-independence era” (Kidane, 2011:7). Similarly, other scholars explained the very insecure environment of the region as “Violent conflict is more the norm than the exception in the Horn of Africa” (Tadesse and Yonas 2007:1). The Ethiopia pastoralist ethnic groups of Afar and Issa are part of this politically sensitive region. Conflict between the ethnic groups caused by traditional cattle raids and competitions on pasturelands and water resources has been common. However, according to Asnake (2002), their conflict has been intensified and transformed in to frontier conflicts after the introduction of ethnic federalism and restructuring of the state post 1991. Although it seemed a little bit exaggerated, after mentioning the various ethnic conflicts in current Ethiopia, (Aregawi, unknown: 12) explained the widespread nature of ethnic conflict in Ethiopia as “no ethnic group in Ethiopia seems to have smooth relationship and live at peace with its

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