Ethnic violence has affected the economy, as foreign investors are reluctant to invest in Pakistan due to law and order situation. 42. Security Implications. A sect, which is oppressed or feels being oppressed, can easily fall prey to the enemies of Pakistan on the name of religion. PART V
Introduction: Sectarian issue in Pakistan is a major destabilizing factor in the country’s political, social, religious and security order. While causing unrest, disorder and violence in society, the sectarian conflict in Pakistan for the last 27 years resulted into thousands of deaths from suicide attacks, bomb blasts, assassinations and other terrorist acts. The state actors, instead of seeking the management and resolution of a conflict, which has divided Muslims on sectarian grounds, tried to exploit the issue for political objectives. Regardless of scattered events of Shia-Sunni discord, sectarian
On the one hand, situation in these countries adversely affect Pakistan and on the other hand, injustice, political immaturity, educational disparity are arguably factors responsible for terrorism in Pakistan. Pakistan has been the victim of this cumbersome problem along with other issues. The wave of terrorism was initiated in America’s proxy war against USSR in which Pakistan played a vital role and supported “freedom fighters.” ("A Freedom Struggle Is Not Terrorism."). Soon after that Pakistan became the victim for supporting these “freedom fighters”. Following the event of 9/11 episode, U.S launch international war on terrorism in Pakistan’s neighborhood (Afghanistan).
The two nations that emerged were named as India and Pakistan. The dividing line between India and Pakistan was offbeat. After dividing the north West part was known as West Pakistan and the population in Eastern part was majority Muslims so those area was known as East Pakistan also known as Bangladesh. After separation these two Asian countries were against each other. The rivalry between these two countries leads toward many wars and nuclear weapons tests.
war in Pakistan and its implications for the social fabric of the country. International Crisis Group’s Asia Report 2005 is also helpful in understanding the links between sectarianism and the trends of radicalization in Pakistan.In a Research Journal of South Asian Studies, “Evolution of Sectarianism in Pakistan: A Threat to the State and Society” Muhammad Nadeem Shah” asserted that the sectarian situation became worsen when Haq Nawaz Jhangvi created Sipah-e-SahabaPakistan(SSP) in 1985 and demanded to pronounce Shias as non-Muslims and Pakistan as a Sunni State. He took part in politics and later on was murdered by his opponents. Rebecca Winthrop and Corinne Graff in their working paper “Beyond madrassas: Assessing the links between education and Militancy in Pakistan” discussed that there has been much debate concerning the roots of militancy in Pakistan, and multiple factors clearlycome into play. One risk factor that has attracted much attention both inside Pakistan and abroad is the dismal state of the national education sector.
Ethnic conflicts have occurred in almost all parts of the world where under developed or developing societies are coupled with multi-ethnicity. India’s North-east has been the home of 200 different tribes speaking a wide multitude of languages. Though the unrest in the region has a history of political causes, the regional conflicts is deeply rooted in its multi-ethnicity. These conflicts are social, political and economic conflicts between groups who identify themselves and others in ethnic terms. While studying ethnic conflicts in 'Northeast India ', one cannot but look at Manipur which exhibits as many problems that could possibly appear in the discourse of collective conflict.
3.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF PAK-AFGHAN RELATIONS Pakistan and Afghanistan are immediate neighbors and having more than two thousands kilometers common border formally known as Durand Line. Pakistan came into being on the map of the world in 1947 as an independent State and it is a fact of history that from the time of Pakistan’s birth, Afghanistan has maintained an attitude of hostile neighbor and Pakistan has to live with it because neighbor cannot be changed. (Hussain, 2005) Afghanistan hostile attitude towards Pakistan were because of issues of Durand Line and Pakhtoonistan. Both of the issues were based on Afghanistan ambitions of regaining control of NWFP and other areas which, for a brief period, were part of Ahmed Shah Abdali’s conquered
The most critical contemporary phase of this history was the partition of 1947. A Muslim sovereign state of Pakistan was born amidst ghastly communal violence but almost as many Muslims as there were in the new constituted Pakistan, for various reasons, stayed in India. The partition did not solve the Hindu-Muslim problems; it caused the situation of the Muslims in India to deteriorate. They were blamed for the division of the country, their leadership had left and their power was further weakened by the removal of all Muslim-majority areas except Kashmir. Most of all, the conflict between India and Pakistan kept the roots of the communal tension perpetually alive and pushed Muslims into the unfortunate situation of defending their loyalty to India.
The gender roles in Pakistan is something like the workplace is for man and the home place is for woman. So that the people invest so far less in woman then the man. In Pakistan the woman mostly suffers from the opportunities of poverty. Female literacy rate is much less than as compared to the man literacy rate. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY: Social and economic vulnerability is also the source of poverty.