Conflicts which appear as a mere inter-ethnic differences consisted of multifaceted variables (Lubo, 2012). He mentioned a number of ethnic conflicts that occurred after 1991 and their causes and concludes: “In spite of the creation of ethnic federalism as an endeavor to address inter-ethnic conflictual problems with Ethiopia” (ibid, 2012:66). Thus, the ethnic federal arrangement has become major source of ethnic conflicts over identity, territory and claims to power and resources. Moreover, according to Mesfin (2006), ethnic conflicts are the results of deliberate manipulation of ethnic sentiments and identities by either leader of ethnic groups or government officers who want to use conflicts as a means of securing economic and political
The bloodshed that has littered the history of African nations throughout their independent existences has often been considered a direct consequence of the forcible and careless unification of tribes into nations without any understanding of the politics that govern their relationships. Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958) is a historical novel, set in the British colony of Nigeria at about the turn
On October 1, 1990, RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) invaded Rwanda for their "democracy, good governance and the right of refugees displaces from earlier violence to return to Rwanda." This was said to have started the Rwandan Civil War, where they had help from the Ugandan government who demanded to share power. The Rwandan Society was characterized by ethnic and political tensions that were shared throughout the entire population. The ecosystem that they lived in was a root cause for the political system. The areas where agriculture was sustainable, were all occupied by Hutu Kingdoms and it wasn't accepted for them.
The party also claimed victory. Kibaki was however declared President by the Kenya electoral body, ECK and hurriedly sworn in despite claims by ODM that he was not the legitimate president. This is what led to the violence that led to the killing of over 1000
As a result, there were mass killings of Tutsis by the Hutus – leading to a massive wave of refugees fleeing Rwanda, mainly taking refuge in Uganda, Tanzania and Zaire. They were denied entry back into Rwanda by the president Juvenal Habyarimana on the grounds that the country was over populated and there were no opportunities for the refugees economically (Outreach Programme on the Rwanda Genocide and the United Nations). Further problems were created in 1988 when the Tutsis formed a rebel army known as the ‘Rwandese Patriotic Front’ in Uganda. Its aims were to “secure repatriation of Rwandans in exile and to reform the Rwandan government, including political power sharing” (Outreach Programme on the Rwanda Genocide and the United Nations). On 1st October 1990 the Rwandese Patriotic Front, with a force power of 7,000, attacked Rwanda.
This formulated an ideology which would consolidate the people. Socialism was ultimately deemed a failure, and then there was a third coup in 1988 to help keep the Burmese military in power. On paper, all of this seemed like a fine idea, but there were more than enough bumps in the road. People were starving, businesses were being watched like hawks. In 1962, Ne Win arranged a coup to gain control of Burma as a dictator until he resigned in 1988.
Thus, the existing literatures claimed that multi-ethnic states are more prone to ethnic conflict than homogeneous states. However, it does not mean that ethnic diversity by itself is a source of ethnic conflict. Ethnic differences lead to ethnic conflict when ethnic differences are politicized for personal or group interests. In the contemporary world, ethnic diversity leads to ethnic conflict when ethnic identities are constructed and instrumentalized by different actors. Indeed, the more the society is divided along ethnic lines the more vulnerable to ethnic mobilizations and ethnic conflict.
He also destroyed the National Bank and authorized the Specie Circular. Because of these infringements on the rights of the people, Andrew Jackson was not a champion of the common man; the nickname “King Andrew,” from his opponents was accurate. When he was elected president, Andrew Jackson felt that he needed to remove John Quincy Adams’ appointees from office. To him, the clear answer was to replace them with his own followers and friends, creating a government where only one political party was effectively represented by presidential appointments. This use of the spoils system put people who were not qualified in powerful positions simply as a reward for supporting Jackson.
Ever since then both groups have been pointing to the prior injustices commuted by one another, in case of Hutu – years of oppression under colonial rule and Tutsi – discrimination in post-revolution times and forced exiles. A 1973 coup d’état established a Hutu regime under president Habyarimana, who concentrated all political power in his own hands, backed by a single MRND party and security forces. The Rwandan Civil War broke out in 1990 with the invasion of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), comprised of second-generation Tutsis, whose main goal was to provide the opportunity for all refugees to return to their homeland. The war brought economic deprivation and contributed to furthering of societal division on the basis of race, wealth and place of living (urban vs. rural). The war ended in 1993 with the signing of Arusha Accords that were supposed to create a power-sharing transitional government, the merge of armies with equal representation and gradual return of refugees.
At the time, the “Tutsi Factor” was largely absent from the Rwandese politics. The principal power struggle was between the northern based in the centre and south, sharpened following Habyarimana’s reluctant opening-up to political parties. Even after October 1990 invasion of the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), a group largely formed of Tutsi refugees in neighbouring countries, the chief threat to the power of President Habyarimana and his coterie was the prospect of electoral loss at the hands of the civilian parties. The political and military opposition, with the support of neighbouring countries, aid donors and ultimately the U.N. Assistance Mission to Rwanda (UNAMIR), set in train a peace and democratisation process that seemed destined to remove the MRND from office. Those in power were determined to block this transition.