According to the textbook face validity is, “the extent to which an instrument appears to measure what it says it measures”. After reviewing the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the NAMCS Electronic Medical Record Supplement Survey, the surveys both meet the definition of face validity. Content validity, according to textbook is, “the rigorous determination that the instrument represents all relevant aspects of a topic”. The NAMCS, for the most part, meets the definition of content validity. On page 3, question number 9a and 9b needs to be re-sequenced. The interviewer is prompting to give a definition of what is included as an ambulatory patient after the question of asking if they directly care for ambulatory patients. The telephone number needs to be added on page 4 question 10a.
Chapter three discusses the research design and methodology used for the current study. The chapter begins with a discussion of the rational for choosing a qualitative design. Qualitative methodologies that were considered for the current study are discussed next followed by the rational for selecting a focused ethnography. Ethical considerations will then be discussed and the researcher describes how principles of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, justice and respect were adhered to. The chapter continues with a discussion about sampling, recruitment and data collection. The pilot study and the interviews are then discussed followed by the data analysis process. Finally the chapter concludes with a discussion on rigor and how it was
This is the research strategy with the help of which the researcher can gather topic specific real life information from the online sources. It is noticed that the practices or actions that has taken place in the world in relation to the research topic are collected and presented in this research strategy. This is means that the researcher analyses the aim and objectives through utilisation of the factual information that is available on the online sources such as organisational website. It involves evaluation of the particular case or situation associated with the topic. For this study, this research strategy is used in which different cases related to transnational asset recovery are presented in the findings so that aim and objectives are discussed and concluded precisely (Blessing & Chakrabarti, 2009).
As previously shown, quantitative and qualitative methods stem from different ontologic, epistemologic and axiologic assumptions about the nature of research. Traditionally, quantitative methods are predominantly acknowledged within positivism whereas qualitative methods are dominant within the interpretivism or non-positivist studies (Bredillet, 2008).
236). Qualitative methods especially one that is based on grounded theories give the researcher the flexibility of maneuvering research frameworks in which new theories are discovered. Using quantitative methods for this study will be difficult because it does not involve much numeric figures rather deals with phenomenon. However, there are some disadvantages associated with qualitative methods such as the inability of the researcher to control the influence of bias and rigidity. Also, qualitative research often is expensive to conduct and requires experience especially in transcribing and coding
Qualitative research is a form of research in which the researcher collects and interprets data, meaning the researcher is as important in the research process as the participants and the data they provide. Reason and Rowan (2004) have argued that the core element of a qualitative research approach is to connect meanings to the experiences of respondents and their lives. According to Clissett (2008) qualitative research involves a variety of research methods that can be used to explore human experience, perceptions, motivations and behaviours. Qualitative research is characterised by collection and analysis of words in the form of speech or writing. Qualitative research therefore aims
The research article, “ Perceptions of patient-provider communication in breast and cervical cancer-related care: A qualitative study of low-income English and Spanish- speaking women. The article is qualitative study because its aim is to explore perceptions of Spanish-speakers who experience a experience a combination of patient-provider language concordance and discordance through the care continuum. It uses direct quotations of the participants to explain its findings. Melissa Simon, Daiva Ragas, Narissa Nonzee, Ava Phisuthikul , Thanh Luu, XinQi Dong, who are the authors of article, collected and analyzed the data. Therefore, which makes it a primary sources. This paper will summarize the article; analyze
Deborah Pacini Hernandez is Associate Professor of Anthropology, Director American Studies and Latino Studies Programs at Tufts University. Hernandez traces the impact of political upheaval and rural migrations on the development of bachata and the Dominican music industry. Her multi-disciplinary study analyzes the changing attitudes about bachata and its principal musical competitor, merengue. She considers issues of sex and gender as perceived and expressed by bachata 's mostly male musicians, especially in the context of changing patterns of marriage.
Qualitative studies are critiqued using five general standards (“Critiquing qualitative research,” 2018). Descriptive vividness examines the inclusion of all the necessary descriptive data, such as the experience of collecting it, the thoughts of the research team as they did so, the site of the collections, and the participants. It should allow the reader to feel personally involved in the event. Methodological congruence ensures that the researcher took the appropriate measures to accurately record and represent the data, both procedurally and ethically. It follows the data itself to ensure that the readers examining the data will reach the same or similar conclusions as the research team. Analytical preciseness deals with the process of translating data. It must go through several processes of decision and interpretation, and analytical precision evaluates logical progression of the data transformation. Theoretical correctness is a meta-evaluation of the schema of the study. It ensures clear connections between the data and the framework of the style of research, and that the language is clear, logical, and reflects the data. Heuristic relevance is primarily for the reader. It aims to rid the report of any verbosity or unfamiliar langue. The goal
This paper will compare two articles related to ethnographic research and the approach taken by modern cultural anthropologists. The question raised in both articles is whether or not a change should be implemented in the accepted method of current standards of writing and recording field research. Additionally these articles question the idea of ethnographies being solely reported through intellectual analyses, and pose the idea of incorporating and taking into account more human emotions, or affect, of the cultures being studied.
The quantitative research that I will critique, is about the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in reducing the risk of gastric injury in elderly patients who undergo an aspirin regimen. According to the study, over 50% of elderly patients who had taken either a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), or aspirin for less than 30 days presented some type of gastro intestinal (GI) lesion (cite). This very high number causes concern, since aspirin and NSAID’s are commonly used medications to treat, and prevent a variety of conditions. The study aims to answer two questions, the first is the risk of ulcers linked to the acute or chronic use of aspirin, and/or NSAIDs. The second question is the efficacy of anti-acid secretory treatments on these ulcers (cite). In this critique, I will be evaluating the data analysis, the findings, and the implications of the study.
This article used the qualitative approach in the study which is to understand and interpret social interactions between two generations of women (Creswell, 2009, pp. 5).There are several defining characteristic of qualitative approach that can be noted in the study. The first thing that i noticed was strategy of inquiry with the use of ethnography. The nature of observation is such that the behavior of the participants is studied in the natural setting (Creswell, 2009, pp. 5). The researcher conducted the study in Mexico which means that the observational and interview data were collected and conducted in Mexico. According to the article (Banco and Pacheco, 2009, pp. 149), a longitudinal perspective was used to describe the process the
Ethnography is the study of social interactions, behaviours, and perceptions that occur within groups, teams, organisations, and communities. The central aim of ethnography is to provide rich, holistic insights into people’s views and actions. (Reeves et al, 2017). The term ethnography has come to be equated with virtually any qualitative research project where the intent is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice. Qualitative research can be described as social science research in comparison to quantitative research is statistically orientated research (Hoey, 2017).
Since I came to the USA, for the first year, I have stayed with American host family. Host family is important role for international students, especially for people who are the first time come to the USA. I have been in host family for two years when I was in high school. To explore my experience as living with host family, I chose to use auto-ethnography. Auto-ethnography is a form of self-reflection and writing that explores the researcher 's personal experience and connects this autobiographical story to wider cultural, political, and social meanings and understandings. My purpose in writing my auto-ethnography was exactly to consider the structural and personal experience about cultural and to consider how, in my experience, I have made with the questions that how international can live with host family and how do success life in the USA. Before I came to the USA, I have all of information and live condition of my host to make sure I would have a good environment to study.
The term Research Methodology refers to a set of procedures, methods & techniques that are put together by the researchers to obtain a solution to the problems they confront during the collection of data. The researchers look for the most crucial data which is inevitable for the research. Generally there are three kinds of approaches or research methods namely Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed. These methods are used to gather data and resolve issues that emerge during the process of data gathering. The researcher can bring forward his findings either in the form of quantitative or qualitative or mixed research methodologies only when the data is collected based on the preliminary data gathering process and the secondary data gathering process.