Danielle Pitter CHEM 137 Professor D’Amelia 3/1/17 Extraction of a Neutral Compound from Acid and Base Impurities Discussion: The diethyl ether solvent is nonpolar; therefore, based on the expression like dissolves like, other nonpolar molecules will dissolve in it. The 9-fluorenone is a nonpolar molecule; therefore, it will dissolve in the nonpolar diethyl ether. The benzoic acid has a polar carboxyl group; however, the ring is nonpolar. The nonpolar ring in the benzoic acid is what makes it soluble in the diethyl ether.
As a part of our study on how to completely extract trimyristin from nutmeg, we had to determine the best way to find a solvent that would properly recrystalize it. We used triphenylmethane as a test compound, attempting to find a solvent that would allow it to recrystalize. The most suitable solvent would dissolve the solute when the solvent is hot, not dissolve it when the solvent is cold, and should be fairly volatile and easily removable from the desired product. We tested water as a potential solvent and triphenylmethane would not dissolve when the water was at room temperature or when it was hot, so this was not a good solvent. When we tested methanol, triphenylmethan did not dissolve at room temperature, but did dissove when the methanol was hot, and then recrystalized into a solid when the mehtanol was cooled, so this was a suitable solvent.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
The disappearance of bubbles can be used as a qualitative indicator for the completion of the chemical reaction and the production of the sodium citrate solution. The chemicals in the final solution are sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid, to make a sodium citrate solution. The solute is the Alka-Seltzer tablet and the solvent is the
If the two ions are mixed in solution, a precipitate will tend to form. If steps have been taken to remove ions that form competing precipitates, the presence of a properly colored solid can be used to confirm the presence of a given ion. If several different precipitates remain, the conditions of the solution can be manipulated to selectively redissolve one or more of the solids. When the equilibria involved are well understood, selective precipitation can be a powerful tool in the identification of unknown
This conversion was required to perform a conjugated addition of the alpha-carbon of acetone to 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, resulting in formation of an aldol, which is subsequently converted to Indoxyl. 5mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide was diluted by the presence of 35mL of water, effectively reducing its concentration to 0.25M. A low hydroxide ion concentration was required to prevent aldol from condensing, which will result in the hydroxyl group leaving as water. Ethanol was subsequently added to reduce the time required for drying
Methylene chloride was added to the TLC chamber until it reaches 0.5 cm depth in order to cover the bottom of the jar; a piece of filter paper was added to the jar allowing the solvent to travel up the paper and the surface area of the solvent increased. Then the plate was placed in the jar containing 100% CH2Cl2 so that the top of the plate rested against the side of the jar opposite the filter paper. When the eluent was near to the top of TLC plate, the plate was removed and then
In a small 125ml Erlenmeyer flask, dry the ether solution over anhydrous calcium chloride. Add sufficient calcium chloride so that it no longer clumps to pellets added earlier on the bottom of the flask. Remove the solvent using a rotary evaporator and weigh product. Results 1 mole of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH = 122.12grams) reacts with 1 mole of methanol (CH3OH = 32grams/mole) to produce 1 mole of methyl benzoate (C6H5COOCH3 = 136.15grams) and 1 mole of water.
3- Then add drops of an acyl chloride solution which was obtained from the first step. 4- Add HCl acid (acidizing agent) after completing the reaction. 5- layering; concentrating under a lower pressure, add residues into an alcohols solvent for dissolution, add drops of H2O to separate out flucloxacillin crystals
Drops of the Methanol were then added to each flask until the crude caffeine had completely dissolved. 13. The solution was then filtered and the residue collected in a filter paper. It was left to dry and
When determining the solubility of malonic acid in different solvents both water and methyl alcohol were found to be polar when mixed with malonic acid. Hexane however was insoluble. Lastly biphenyl was mixed with water and was found to be insoluble, methyl alcohol was determined to be partially soluble. Hexane on the other hand was the only soluble solvent for biphenyl 2. Part B. of this experiment determined the solubility of different alcohols in hexane or water.
The acid catalyst then deprotonates the alcohol so it could retain its neutral charge and then the acid protonates the other hydroxide group, to produce H2O which separates from the main compound to stabilize its own charge and then carbocation rearrangement occurs to form a pi bond.