The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again.
The crude product contained acetanilide, and acetic acid, which was the impurity. Recrystallization, which was used to purify the contaminated acetanilide, required a suitable hot solvent which dissolved all the crude product, but upon being cooled, since
The miscibility of ionic liquids with water or organic solvents varies with side chain lengths on the cation and with choice of anion. They can be functionalized to act as acids, bases or ligands, and have been used as precursor salts in the preparation of stable carbenes. Because of their distinctive properties, ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention in many fields, including organic chemistry, electrochemistry, catalysis, physical chemistry, and engineering; see for instance magnetic ionic
In this experiment, HCl and NaOH will react to form NaOH and H2O with these two steps: The overall reaction is: Both Na+ and Cl- ions combine to form NaCl. H3O+ and OH- ions combine to form H2O. H2O is part of the overall reaction because it is always the product in acid-base neutralization reaction. Based on this reaction, by adding a known base, the amount of acid can
Herein, a mixture of (E)-1-(1-benzyl-5-methyl-1H-1, 2, 3-triazol-4-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, 2a, guanidine hydrochloride and NaOH in water or ethanol was refluxed for 30–40 min. The reaction mixture was then neutralized using dil. HCl after pouring on excess crushed ice. The precipitated 1, 2, 3-triazolyl-2-aminopyrimidine 3a was then filtered and recrystallized from ethanol. 82% of yield was obtained using water.
Therefore, in the second step (2), the sodium salicylate collected is then acidified using sulphuric acid to convert the organic salt into the protonated carboxylic acid, salicylic acid. Since the acid is a solid, it be easily isolated from the alcohol produced, methanol, and then purified by crystallisation. The mechanism of
Silica which is soluble in about 2 to 3N hydrochloric acid can be taken as reactive silica. The acid-soluble silica can easily and accurately be determined by plasma emission spectrometry using a very small quantity of fly ash (Sivapullaiahet al. 1998). 3.3. Soil – Lime Reactions The addition of lime to a soil initiates a two stage reaction.
The alkaline solution was extracted 3 times with 10mL of chloroform. The lower chloroform extract was combined and the upper aqueous layer for quaternary bases was reserved. The chloroform extract was evaporated to dryness in a fume hood over a steam bath. 5mL of 2M HCl was added and the solution was filtered and divided into 3 portions. 1 portion was tested with Mayer’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent and Draggendorrf’s reagent.
As the base, NaOH, is added drop by drop the pH gradually increases until the equivalence point. This is when the amount of hydroxide ions (from base) added equals to the amount of hydrogen ions (from acid) present in the solution. At this point the pH increases very rapidly until it reaches a more gradual rate of increase. The pH change can be followed using a pH meter and measuring the pH after each drop of base added. Then, plotting a pH versus volume of base graph the volume at equivalence point can be determined.