Introduction My essay is focused on chemical kinetics, which is only about 100 years old subfield of chemistry. Kinetics is topic, which investigates the speed of reaction. It is worth to investigate because it gives us knowledge about how reactions happen and about reaction mechanisms. As well as this, chemical kinetics can be used in many different areas: for instance, in pharmacology to work out how fast the drug dissolves or in food industry in order to understand food decomposition. This investigation is focused on the kinetics of iodination of acetone and the reaction used in this experiment is following: CH3COCH3 (aq) + I2 (aq) ⇒ CH3COCH2I (aq)+ HI (aq) This reaction is suitable because it is fast enough to make multiple runs, but
Moles extrapolated from the titration curve were used to find the molecular weight of the unknown amino acid, along with the pkas and the pI. This information when compared to the literature values of Gly, L-ala, L-ser, and L-asp (of which the unknown was one of) led to the conclusion that the identification of unknown C was likely to be L-Aspartic Acid. The literature values agreed with some deviance from the experimental values, which were likely due to experimental errors. This showed that we can prepare a buffer using an amino acid and use the titration curve of that buffer to identify the unknown amino acid. Results Data
It usually requires the support to be soaked in the enzyme and incubation time to adsorb the enzymes. For example, gelatin acts as a support material for Lactobacilli to convert lactose into lactic acid, cotton fibres acts as support material for Zygomonas to convert glucose into ethanol. 2. Entrapment: It is an irreversible method of enzyme translocation where enzymes are trapped in confined space like inside of fibers or polymer membranes. It is commonly referred as lattice entrapment where enzyme is not bind by strong force and no structural distortion is seen.
The Binding interaction of complex pyridoxine 5 phosphate oxidase – Nitroimidazooxaine conformations including hydrogen bond and the bond length are analyse by chimera software. 3. Result and Disscussion Docking AnalysisResult : Pyridoxine 5 Phosphate oxidase ,, the macromolecule and the ligand molecule were subject to docking analysis by using Autodock 4.2 .Molecular docking simulations were conducted with this software 10 docking runs were performed. Gird parameter were set as mentioned earlier and the grid spacing point was 0.375 angstoms . After the simulations were complete ,the docked structures were analyzed and the interactions were seen.
An enzyme biologically defined is a catalyst produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reactions without changing the chemical reaction at the end of the reaction.1 There are several factors that affect the rate an enzyme speeds up reactions; temperature, pH, substrate concentration and enzyme concentration.2 However, when there is too much or not enough of these factors (depending on the enzyme) it can destroy the enzyme entirely. In this experiment we tested how temperature affects enzymes. We observed the enzyme activity for the enzyme Alkaline phosphatase when it was put in an environment of 33°C and 86°C. Because Alkaline phosphatase has the ability to extract phosphate groups from substrates, once the Alkaline phosphatase was in the specifically heated environment for five minutes, we measured it’s activity by inserting para-nitrophenyphosphate. Para-nitrophenyphosphate is a substrate that goes from being colorless to being the color yellow when it’s phosphate group is removed.
An enzyme is a biomolecule that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions (1). Enzymes are commonly used in many products and medications. Enzymes function by flexibly binding to active sites in substrates (reactants). This binding is weak non-covalent interactions. The Michaelis Menten model is used to show the relationship between velocity and substrate concentration, such as in figures four and five.
Copper Sulphate can block the activity of Amylase, which is a known non-competitive irreversible enzyme inhibitor. The light absorbent method can be used to study this phenomenon of breakdown and blockade of breakdown of starch in the laboratory. After studying these properties of Amylase and Copper sulphate I designed my experiment to study the inhibitory effect of Copper Sulphate on the enzymatic activity of 1% and 2% Amylase solution. Starch was used as a substrate and a calorimeter to detect the light absorbance to confirm enzymatic breakdown and its blockage by copper
LBYCH63, EA 2, Group # 6 Experiment #8: Aldehydes and Ketones Ong Hian Huy, Tiffany Joy Sir Glenn Kelly U. Tan November 11, 2014 November 25, 2014 Abstract Aldehydes and ketones are two similar functional groups containing the carbonyl group. In this experiment, the main objectives are to be able to do qualitative tests on the samples, to be able to write the respective correct chemical reactions for each sample on each test, and to be able to differentiate aldehydes and ketones from one another and from other compounds. The tests were performed by mixing the respective reagents or compounds to each of the samples and then the mixture was observed for a reaction. The oxidation test, and 2,4-DNPJ test confirms that formaldehyde and benzaldehyde
Abstract: Drug companies must apply the knowledge gathered from the effects of substrate concentration in an enzyme catalyzed reaction. The awareness of inhibitors must be applied so that their developed drugs do not inhibit enzymes. It would be important to consider substrate concentrations in relationship to target enzymes that are exposed. Competitive inhibitor drugs compete with high concentrations of ATP in the cell and proteins inside the cell contain lower concentrations. Thus the knowledge of the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity would aid drug designers in utilizing competitive inhibitors that will inhibit the enzyme more effectively.
An important characteristic used in thin layer chromatography is Rf value. Fig .1: Technique for TLC chromatography Chromatographic Separation of Amino acids The experiment aims to bring about separation of a mixture of amino acids using the technique of thin layer chromatography to separate the amino acids in a given mixture. There are 20 standard amino acids which are a-amino acids. They are made up of two groups and
Collecting small fractions is essential in column chromatography because they can be combined together; large fractions can lead to multiple compounds in a specific fraction. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate the three components of Excedrin using column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine when each of the components had been fully eluted from the column. If there was an overlap in fractions between two components, liquid- liquid extraction was done to separate them. The compounds were characterized via NMR instrumentation and the percent recovery for each compound was calculated to determine whether the isolation was
To observe a particular trait (zinc finger gene) in sea lion a tissue sample was obtained. To observe the presence on this gene the DNA was first extracted from the tissue sample. First a tissue sample was obtained in a 1.5 ml tube and the tube number, AK24667, was recorded. To this sample, 180 microliters of buffer ATL was added. After adding 20 microliters of proteinase K to the 1.5 ml tube, the sample was vortexed for 30 seconds to disrupt the pellet.
A vital "knowledge gap" is addressed in this experiment, that is to study the effect of stimulants and depressants, such as ethanol, melatonin, epinephrine, and dopamine on HR, individually and in a mixture. Said depressant and stimulant chemicals were administered to daphnia individually and afterwards, in combinations. The motivation for research in this area was to explore whether two select depressants or stimulants when administered together have a synergistic, antagonistic or no effect on HR. Data was determined in the form of Beats Per Minute (BPM). The data was analyzed by plotting the calculated BPM for each test solution from each daphnia.