3.1 ABSTRACT The intermolecular interactions in the N-methylformamide with acetophenone, cyclic ketones (cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone) binary liquid systems are studied in combined experimental and computational methodology. The speed of sound (u), density (ρ) and viscosity ( ) values are measured for binary mixtures of N-methylformamide with ketones over the entire range of mole fraction at temperatures T= (303.15 to 318.15) K, at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental results, the values of excess molar volume ( ), excess isentropic compressibility (κsE), deviation in viscosity (η) and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow ( ) are evaluated. The experimental results indicate the intermolecular association between
1.1 Kinetic model To determine the second order reaction rate constant of Acesulfame K with the different transient species studied, two pairs of independent competition kinetics were established for each transient: Acesulfame K with Ibuprofen and Acesulfame K with Atrazine. Assuming the first pair of competition for the hydroxyl radical generated by NaNO3 irradiation is Acesulfame and Ibuprofen (ACE, IBP). Their respective reaction rates are (M s-1): (Eq. 6) (Eq. 7) With k and k’ the second order reaction rates of Ace and IBP with HO•.
With the use of radical chemistry, the cis conformation can be changed into a trans configuration where the esters are on opposite sides of one another. Through the isomerization reaction, the dimethyl maleate’s double bond broke and was formed into a single bond by inputting energy,
pV = nRT - in which p is pressure (Pa), V is volume (m3), n is molar quantity (mol), T is temperature (K) and R is the gas constant which is 8.314 J/kmol 2. c = n/V - in which n is the number of mols (mol), V is the volume (m3) and c is the concentration (mol/L) NOTE While performing the experiment, wear appropriate safety gear (lab coat and glasses). Experiment steps: 1. We fill a Erlenmeyer flask with 100ml of a 0.5 mol/L solution of Na2SO3. 2. We integrate a thermometer and pressure gauge into the bottom (because it will be placed upside down) of the measuring cylinder so that we can later measure the pressure and temperature of the gas produced.
The gel was submerged into Coomasie blue in order for the stain to bind with the proteins and was again destained afterwards to remove excess proteins. Figure 1.0 shows the results obtained from the SDS PAGE of the cellular fraction of a chicken liver after destaining. The software Gel Analyzer was used in order to determine the lanes, the bands and the molecular weight of each protein. The lanes found in the gel determine the different cellular fractions. The 1st lane found in the left most side is the protein ladder, which has known molecular weight and functions as the ‘ruler’ for the molecular weight of the unknowns.
Chemistry Exploration Topic: determining the activation energy of a chemical reaction Research Question: What effect does temperature of the chemical reaction have on the activation energy ? ICT: Microsoft Word Autograph Microsoft Excel Introduction This experiment is designed to help in estimating the activation energy of the rate-limiting step in the acid catalyzed reaction of acetone with iodine. This is achieved by measuring the reaction rates at different reaction temperatures over the experiment. Once the raw data is obtained, I will analyze the data with the help of an Arrhenius plot. This is a tool used in determining the activation energy of chemical reactions.
The FTIR spectra of the prepared adsorbents before and after treatment were presented in (Fig. 6). FTIR spectrum of prepared bioadsorbent coming from T. cordifolia (constituted by carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and fibers) was recorded to identify functional groups responsible for the metal ion coordination. The FTIR spectra of the biosorbent and metal ion loaded biosorbent were compared to determine which functional groups (Table No. 3)are responsible for the manganese biosorption.When compare the two spectra before and after adsorption, as shown in the (Fig.
Further studies on this hydrolysis in the presence of some [CoLM(NCS)(OH)]n+ complexes where LM is the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand has been studied at pH 9 with I = 0.1 M adjusted using sodium perchlorate. In all the reactions the ester concentration was 1.84 × 10-4 M and the metal complex was present in at list 10 fold excess. In the concentration range of 2x10-3 to 7x10-3 result give excellent fast order dependence on ester concentration the values of kobs as the function of concentration of the metal complex linear way positive intercept as shown in fig.2. The rate expression for the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate in presence of metal complex can be written as kobs = kO +
First stage is protonation and deprotonation of inner N-H group, and followed by the release of metal ion from “metal carrier” (metal counter ion), i.e. the second stage. The deprotonation of porphyrin produces porphyrin dianions that can be readily metallated by various metal ions. Therefore, the presence of acid would affect the metalation process while the addition of a buffer solution or solvent favors proton absorption process. The choice of counter ion depends on its availability, solubility, and activity in the porphyrin solution.
Introduction: Titration process is used in an acid-base experiment in order to determine the concentrations of solutions of acids and bases. Through the titration process, we are able to identify physical changes to the mixture such as the colour change to indicate the end point of the experiment. For example, the colour changes of phenolphthalein from colourless to pink and methyl orange from red to orange and subsequently yellow. Acids produce hydrogen ions and bases produce hydroxide ions. This causes the indicator to change colour due to the colour difference from the undissociate molecules.