Acetaminophene Lab Report

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In this diagram we can see that acetaminophen consists of a benzene ring core, with hydroxyl and amide functional groups in proxy.
Benzene (C6H6) is a hydrocarbon composed of 6 carbon atoms (92.26% of the molecule) and 6 hydrogen atoms (7.74% of the molecule) with alternating double and single bonds (resonance bonds) and is aromatic because of this. Benzene is a natural part of petroleum, usually <1.0% by weight, but is found in many things used today. Benzenes most common use is to produce ethylbenzene, with over half of the benzene used in the production of ethylbenzene. Benzene is a clear, colourless and highly volatile liquid which is soluble in water at an average room temperature (23.5o). Potential symptoms from overexposure by inhalation
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Other amide types include RC(O)NHR and RNH2. Amides are found in a wide variety of things, they are used in the production of drugs such as paracetamol and LSD, but are also found in DNA. Amides are similar to amines (RNH2) in that they are both derivatives of ammonia and are both bases, though amides are considerably weak when compared to amines (amines have a pKa of around 9.5, while amides have a pKa of around -0.5). Therefore amides do not have clearly noticeable acid-base properties in water. The lack of basicity within amide is due to the C=O, or carbonyl group, within the amide as it has electron withdrawing properties causing the lone pair of electrons within nitrogen to become delocalised. The Amide functional group is also a moderate Electron Donating Group (EDG), meaning that it donates some of its electron density to conjugated…show more content…
Pure acetaminophen is a white, semi transparent, crystal in the shape of a large monoclinic prism. Acetaminophen is very slightly soluble in cold water but is considerably more soluble in hot water. The recommended dosage of acetaminophen is of 0.5 grams for children from 7-12, taken every 4-6 hours and 1 gram for anyone aged 12-Adult, taken every 4-6 hours. As acetaminophen is a toxic drug an overdose can cause liver damage resulting in death. The reason for this toxicity isn't because of the benzene ring found in acetaminophen, which can also cause liver damage, but rather a metabolite known as N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). NAQPI reduces the amount of glutathione (an antioxidant that prevents damage to cells) within the liver and also damages the cells within the

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