Enzymes in the cells convert these disaccharides into monosaccharides that then leave the cell and enter the capillary. Lactose intolerance results from the genetic lack of the enzyme lactase produced by the intestinal cells. Digested fats are not very soluble. Bile salts surround fats to form micelles that can pass into the epithelial cells. The bile salts return to the lumen to repeat the process.
Loperamide is a potent Mu-opioid receptor agonist [13, 15] that acts on the myenteric plexus of the gut wall. It inhibits acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus and inhibits the peristalsis. It also increases the tone of anal sphincter. Loperamide also inhibits the secretions directly by interacting with calmodulin, this may be responsible for the anti diarrheal action.  Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy.
Lysosomes digest the toxins so they can be safely eliminated by the cell. Peroxisomes contain oxidases and catalases that detoxify substances like alcohol and neutralize free radicals. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also contains enzymes that detoxify certain drugs (such as alcohol). 3. Mrs. Fender’s jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin in her blood and tissues.
Fluro Jade B and Nissl staining will be measured ex vivo in rats selected from Experiment 1A at each time point (0-3 hours, 2 and 7 days) to determine the effects of melatonin on apoptosis. Comparison will be made between saline and melatonin treated rats in terms of induction of apoptosis and morphological
Based on its physicochemical properties, abiraterone can be made into tablets and consuming with water without or trace solubility before reaching the stomach for further absorption, which increases the bioavailability for the drug. With a cLog P value
Sucralose (Splenda) Sucralose has been proven to worsen diabetes, abort pregnancies, and toxify the liver and kidneys. These are unmistakable signs that sucralose is an extremely dangerous substance, but it is the least-studied artificial sweetener. It is one of the more recent additions to the diet industry. One of the reasons for sucralose 's fast-track approval is because aspartame cannot be used in baked foods, for it breaks down at high temperatures into toxic substances, as it does during metabolisis within the human body. Sucralose was hailed to be a better alternative for cooking, but it releases chloropropanols when heated, which are toxic chlorine byproducts.
Determination of methotrexate and its metabolites: 1. Determination methods developed till 2000: In this era the methotrexate was being used only as anti tumor agent to treat acute leukaemia, osteosarcoma, psoriasis, sarcoidosis and wegener’s granulomatosis. Due to its toxic side effects such as skin rash, myelo suppression, renal damage and mucosal ulceration the biological fluid level of methotrexate came into existence. The side effects was only when this drug was used in higher concentration. The biological fluids used were serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid.
ALKAPTONURIC ARTHROPATHY:- A RARE ENTITY Hemant Kumar†, Sagar Tyagi†, Parveen Hans†, Prof .Virinder Mohan* Department of Radiodiagnosis, Rohilkhand Medical college, Bareilly, (U.P.) India ABSTRACT Alkaptonuria is a metabolic disorder of tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism in which there is absence of homogentisic acid oxidase whose deficiency leads to excessive accumulation of homogentisic acid in urine resulting in black color of urine on standing.  The disease is usually diagnosed in adults but a few cases in childhood have been noted because of black discolouration of diapers. Homogentisic acid thus accumulates in cells and body fluids and its oxidized polymers bind to collagen leading to progressive deposition of grey to bliuish black pigment which leads to degenerative changes in cartilage,
This means researchers make the assumption that the placebo effect on animals is similar as in humans. For example, two researchers Ader and Cohen injected a saccharine-flavored liquid with the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide in rats (Ader & Cohen, 1982). After a couple of times matching these solutions, it became evident that the saccharine solution alone effected the immune
Due to this, lycopene been known as not a pro-vitamin A carotenoid groups which cannot convert lycopene to vitamin A (Kelkel, et al., 2010). These red colored pigments have drawn attention recently among nutritionists since it has powerful antioxidant. It’s due to its ability to quench singlet oxygen and prevent oxidative damage
In fact, through a recent study at Princeton University, after observing changes in rats that consumed high fructose corn syrup, scientists were able to conclude that the cheap sugar substitute has addicting effects on the brain “similar to some drugs of abuse” (Parker, 2010). Behaviors that individuals who take in excess amounts of HFCS encounter such as binge eating, withdrawal, and craving, for instance, all relate to the same neurochemical change, where enkephalin mRNA, dopamine, and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens, in the brain that occur in humans addicted to drugs (Avena, 2007). Thus, in the same way that a drug fiend depends on drugs humans begin to depend on High Fructose Corn Syrup, both needing their daily fix which is especially apparent in the growing number of overweight people since HFCS became present in nearly every processed food (Avena,