Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask. Equipment • Filter paper • Buhner funnel • Tubing • Clean solvent • Disposable dropper Method 1.
The isotherm was recorded by Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyzer and the physical adsorption of N2 at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196oC) with a standard pressure range of 0.05-0.30 P/Po. 2.3 Catalytic Activity Measurement After annealing the catalyst bed, it was cooled to room temperature in the same conditions as we used for reactive calcination. The CO oxidation was analysis by gas chromatogram to measure the activity of the catalyst. The oxidation of CO was carried out to measure the activity of resulting catalyst. 2CO + O2→2CO2 -------------------- (1) The oxidation of CO was carried out under the following reaction conditions: 100mg of catalyst with feed gas consisting of a lean mixture of 2.5 vol.% CO in air and total flow rate is maintained 60 mL/min.
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
The solution was discarded into the waste bin, and the materials were washed. The second reaction in Part B, sodium hydroxide and ammonium chloride, began by saving the data from the first reaction and setting up the LabQuest to new data collection under the same conditions as the first reaction. The cups were restacked and placed in the beaker. Using a graduated cylinder, 50mL 2M NaOH was added to the cup. The cup was then covered and the temperature probe inserted.
Throughout the mixing process, the clear red solution slowly changes to a denser red solution (Appendix figure 23). A thermometer was used for temperature checking. The beaker was removed from the hot plate when the temperature was found to be higher than 50 ℃. This was done to prevent a sudden gelation happen before all the active dissolved in the ethylene glycol. Moderate heating of the solution for a period of time is allowed to obtain a wet gel (Appendix figure 24).
In the lab, “Properties of Hydrates,” the purpose was to compare the properties of several well observable hydrates and to determine if dehydration is a reversible or irreversible change. The lab consisted of attaining a pea-size sample of each compound, burning it over a bunsen burner, and comparing the starting mass and the mass lost after the combustion. These results are important to be able to identify a variety of different chemicals that contain water molecules as part of their crystalline structure. Some can be removed by heating (resulting in evaporation) and some remain mostly unchanged. In this lab the answer will be found.
* In the above RB, a calculated amount of 1.2 equivalent amount of PTSH was added during continous stirring. * To the RB a condenser was attached and it was put on refluxing for a time period of 18 hours at a temperature of 80 degrees in an oil bath. * Post refluxing, the condenser was removed and it was left undisturbed for 1 day and then cooled to a temperature of -20 degrees by keeping in the freezer for setting of hydrazone crystals. * Once the crystals were formed, the supernatant was decanted and the crystals were transferred to a beaker where they were washed with cold methanol and then dried. * These dried hydrazone crystals were used in the subsequent steps.
The products in both methods were used for recrystallization and TLC. For recrystallization, boiling ethanol was used as the solvent. In the TLC procedure, 90/10 hexane and ethyl acetate was used. NMR was collected for products used in these methods. In this experiment, method 1 generate a mixture of yellowish crystals and a yellowish gluey product.
Used solvents contain contaminants that can be removed by fractional distillation. The recycled solvents have purities suitable for re-use. Fractional distillation is used to separate the crude oil into its various components such as gasoline, kerosene oil, diesel oil, paraffin wax, liberating oil. Fractional distillation is also used for the purification of water. Water contains many dissolved impurities; these can be removed by this process.
Once AMD reached the coveted pH level, it was filtered using filter paper (0.45 μm) to obtain the precipitate. The filtrates were then measured for the EC level using conductivity meter, TDS level using TDS meter, and concentration of Cu2+ using PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Analyst 400. All analyses were conducted in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Mataram. Filtrates (with several pH levels) found to still contain Cu2+, would be treated to the sulfidization treatment. Sulfidization treatment using SNW from Sebau This experiment was conducted by adding pure SNW from three sampling points (T1, T2, and T3) to the AMD with three different pH levels in 1:1 ratio reaction.