The brine shrimp were hatched from cysts in seawater and placed in jars, and the algae were contained in large flasks of seawater in various concentrations, for everyone to access. The number of brine shrimp were our independent variable and the algae concentration were our dependent variable. We obtained 6 clean jars for our group in which we created our miniature ecosystems. We labeled each jar with our group name, lab section number, and replicate number. After deciding on what algae concentration we wanted to hold constant in our jars, we calculated the volume of seawater and algae solution required to achieve the desired algae concentration of 50,000 cells/mL and a total volume of 50 mL (C1V1=C2V2).
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
They break down dead biological matter and waste products and convert them into useable energy; returning important materials to the environment. Decomposers are a particular important feature in the Great Barrier Reef considering the heavy bio-load. Main decomposers inside the reef include bacteria, sea cucumbers, some species of snails, crabs and bristle worms. Bacteria sis not only vital for the Great Barrier Reef’s food web, but is also said by scientists that it could be the key to keeping the coral healthy and able to withstand the impacts of global warming. Dr Tracy Ainsworth stated “it is very likely that these microorganisms play a vital role in the capacity of coral to recovering from bouts of bleaching caused by rising temperatures.” Corals rely on these good bacteria’s crucially although we don’t yet understand these microbe’s ell enough to know how they influence coral survival, which is vital in maintaining the food web of the Great Barrier Reef.
Carbon dioxide is a natural component of Earth’s atmosphere and has an important role in maintaining a livable life on the planet. All animals, including humans, make carbon dioxide when they breathe out. This experiment can be used to teach two things: it is an example of a chemical reaction and it shows how carbon dioxide builds up in water. Bromothymol blue is a chemical indicator that is used to find acids and bases. It is mostly used to show the pH of fish tanks and pools, measuring from 6.0 (yellow color) to 7.6 (green to blue).
Drew Harvell, a biologist at Cornell University, explains http://phys.org/news/2015-12-climate-american-starfish.html the link this way: "There are components that certainly track with temperature... We think the magnitude in our wasters is due to temperature. We know that under warmer conditions, they die
8). The optimum ionic strength for red pigment production by M. purpureus was 1% NaCl. These results may be due to the increasing of electrolyte concentrations in saline environments tending to inhibit metabolic functions of the cells (Adler et al. 1982). The highest growth and red pigment production obtained from medium containing amino acid was L- tryptophan (4.75 ± 0.09 A500) and maximum dry cell mass was (3.9 ± 0.02 g/l) as shown in fig.
After effectively conducting the experiment, the results acquired clearly shows the impacts of the variables applied and materials used to create a stimulus on the daphnia which can be seen with changes in its movement behavior and heart rate. With a certain level of knowledge in biology, some of the results and responses obtained were as expected, corresponding to the changes inflicted on the daphnias. When the daphnia was placed into water, controlled with a thermometer at different temperatures such as 5°C, 20°C, and 50°C, its heart rate increased at a high temperature and decreased to normal at 20°C and 5°C. According to Clare (2002), even though the daphnia has a wide tolerance to different temperatures, its optimum temperature of survivability
A study conducted by Marti et al (2013) found that the spread of antibacterial resistance genes came from wastewater treatment plant contaminants into the environment. Antibacterial genes were found more prevalent in downstream samples compared to upstream samples of bacterial communities. Antibiotic resistant genes have contaminated the public source water through the water supply system that allows antibiotics to thrive in the environment. To understand the mechanisms behind ARG, Cirz et al (2005) tested how inhibiting the pathway of a protease will affect E coli to gain resistance. Their findings showed that by inhibiting the mutation, it could be one of the possible ways of preventing bacteria from becoming resistant in the environment.
If their heart rate increases and they are not eating, this indicates a high level of stress. Daphnia magna are a food source for many fish. Although they are very tolerant of poor water quality, Daphnia magna are very sensitive to changes in the ionic composition of their environment. Because Daphnia magna are sensitive to changes in their environment, they are being used in this experiment to
Methylmercury can enter the food chain, or it can be released back to the atmosphere by volatilization. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH have a strong effect on the ultimate fate of mercury in an ecosystem. Studies have shown that for the same species of fish taken from the same region, increasing the acidity of the water (decreasing pH) and/or the DOC content generally results in higher mercury levels in fish, an indicator of greater net methylation. Higher acidity and DOC levels enhance the mobility of mercury in the environment, thus making it more likely to enter the food chain. Mercury and methylmercury exposure to sunlight (specifically ultra-violet light) has an