This means as employees’ nominal wages increase with inflation their real wage (purchasing power of nominal wages) may remain constant. Since inflation reduces the incentive for households to save, it causes a shortage of savings for firms to borrow. Firms finance investment (the purchase of new capital goods) by borrowing money. Therefore, if there is not saving funds for investment will
On the other hand, the LM curve is affected by Monetary Policy. An expansionary monetary policy (where the monetary authority of an economy purchases bonds to expand the money supply) would cause the LM curve to shift to the right. A contractionary fiscal policy (central bank buys back bonds to reduce the money supply in the economy) would shift the LM curve to the left. IS/LM curve shift can also cause fluctuations in Business Cycle. Business Cycle is the movement of GDP in the long term.
5.4. Main Drivers of the Valuation Model Tesco’s historical financial data, market growth demonstrated through GDP growth, has been the main drivers for analysis in assignment 2 of this paper, applying to Tesco’s different markets and specific growth. Tesco has its way of calculating financial figures giving more details with the assumptions of continuing updates on projected market trends, geographical growth plans, etc. Depreciation and amortization figure has been considered as fixed % of 2015 revenue (62,284/38,135=1.63%) for easy of calculations as Tesco will have much better forecast. For interest expense, I used 35% which was the rate for 2015 on total borrowing and applied it on 2015 borrowings.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW INFLATION (InvestorWords, 2015) stated that inflation is the increase in the general price level of goods and services in economy, normally caused by excess supply of money. Inflation usually measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). When the cost of producing goods and services goes up, the purchasing power of dollar will decrease. A customer will not be able to purchase the same goods and services as he/she previously could. Inflation rate of 1-2% per year are acceptable and even desirable in some ways (Investopedia, 2015).
Currency fluctuations normally happen in countries where they practice the free exchange rate system. Currency fluctuation is a situation in an economy where the value of the value of the currency rises, fall or both frequently against its major trading currencies for a period. While some currencies fluctuate freely against each other, such as the Ghana Cedi, Japanese Yen and the US Dollar, others are tied. They may be pegged to the value of another currency, such as the US dollar or the Euro, or to a basket of currencies (Farlex, 2009). Changes in interest rate affect currency value and exchange rate.
So a higher interest rate is always implying a lower net interest income. The interest rate risk can be divided by refinancing risk and reinvestment risk. Refinancing risk is “the costs of rolling over funds or reborrowing funds will rise above the returns generated on investments” (Cornett, Lange & Saunders 2013). A downgraded bank usually pays for higher funding costs reducing returns on investments (Drehmann, Sorensen & Stringa 2008). The other classification, reinvestment risk means “the returns on funds to be reinvested will fall below the cost of funds” (Cornett, Lange & Saunders 2013).
For the economy as a whole, demand pulled inflation refers to the price increases which results from an excess of demand over supply. It is a form of inflation and categorized by the four parts (households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers). When these parts want to purchase greater output than the economy can produce and we need more cash to buy the same amount of goods as before and the value of money falls, so they have to compete in order to purchase limited amounts of products and services. Generally, the demand-pulled inflation result from any factor that increases aggregate demand. Also, an increase in export and two factors controlled by the government are increases in the quantity of money and increases in government purchases
If employers are paying employees more then they will raise costs to offset the added expenses. This will cause the buying power of the dollar to decrease, making it so people who received the minimum wage increases will not be making any more money than they otherwise would’ve, and people who did not have their pay increased, will be making even less money then they had used too. This would do nothing but increase the poverty rate even higher, doing exactly the opposite of what the counter argument says it would. The second way this counterclaim is disproven, is because of the increase people will see in the cost of living. With the price of housing, food, etc.
First, the empirical propensity to sell a stock is increasing or approximately constant as the gain increases, whereas a reasonable parameterization of a prospect theory value function predicts that the propensity to sell will decline as the gain increases. Second, the empirical propensity to sell is approximately constant in the domain of losses, while prospect theory again predicts it will decline as the loss increases. Prospect theory combined with exogenous liquidity shocks does predict that more gains are realized than losses. But even in that case, prospect theory predicts that the propensity to sell declines as the stock price moves away from the purchase price in either direction, a prediction that is clearly rejected by the data. Alternative rational explanations of the disposition effect do not fare well either.
Along these lines, unemployment may decrease, as this has different favorable circumstances, for example, lower government using on profits and less social issues. However, this phenomenon includes a number of different expenses. Firstly, if economic growth is unsustainable and is higher than the long run pattern rate, inflations are liable to be seen. An increase in economic growth could prompt an equalization of issued installments. In case the expanded customer expenditure causes further development, there will be an increase in the import sector.
If interest rates increase, it will become attractive to invest money in that country because investors will get a higher return from savings in that country’s banks. Therefore the currency demand will rise. But higher interest rates will have a negative impact on the country. This is due to the reduction in purchasing power of the consumer while the loan borrowers have to pay more interest. Foreign investors are attracted towards a country that has a strong economy.