Europe Demographic Transition Model

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The European demography experienced its most significant transformation between the 18th and 19th century which can be illustrated using the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) . This model correlates to a country’s development: as it moves from a pre-industrialised to an industrialised system, the population growth rate moves from high birth and mortality rates to low birth and mortality rates. 1700 to 1900 Europe saw three phases of this model – the pre-industrialized phase saw high birth rates and high mortality rates due to high fertility and spread of epidemics. The first stage of the DTM can further be elucidated by the Malthusian theory. According to the Malthusian theory, population increased geometrically while food production grew…show more content…
This period became a turning point in the history of European demography. It was the beginning of cultural, societal, religious and technological transformation – a consequence of the Age of Reason and the Scientific Revolution. The Age of Reason (or Enlightenment) was a progression of ideas of liberty, tolerance, modern science and the church and state which were the antecedent to the Industrial Revolution . The Scientific Revolution saw the emergence of reason and developments in the fields of science, especially biology. In the early 18th century, Europe had high fertility rates nevertheless, the population didn’t increase much as Europe also saw high mortality rates. About 16 to 25 women per thousand died during childbirth. There was also high infant mortality rates as one in three pregnancies resulted in miscarriage or stillbirth . The average population growth in Europe in 1700-1750 was 3.1% . The wealthier had more children compared to the poor. This had an economic reason – a wealthier man was financially able to care for more children and leave a bequest to them. Also, in the wealthier households, the tradition of midwives was gradually moving towards ‘man midwives’ and doctors due to medical advancements which helped decrease both infant and maternal…show more content…
Before the Industrial Revolution, the history of demography in Europe was rife with high fertility rates and mortality rates. The dawn of the Age of Reason induced the development of knowledge and science and transitioned Europe from rural to urban. This resulted in two things: the debunking of the Malthusian Theory and the analysis of the European population evolution via the Demographic Transition Model. The onset of the Agricultural Revolution along with the development of European transportation facilities vastly improved the lives of people and complemented the movement of urbanization. This capitulated into high fertility and birth rates and low mortality rates during the Industrial Revolution. As economic development advanced, the second half of the 19th century Europe saw another modification in the population growth rates with both low birth and mortality rates. This was due to the changing European marriage pattern, better education system, medical innovation, women independence, migration, globalization and economic prosperity that resulted in the population growth of Europe to decrease and remain
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