European Citizenship

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Topic: Discuss the formation of citizenship in Europe and explain why there is no parallel development of citizenship in China.
SOCI 4056 States and Power: Europe and China

Citizenship is a regional or national status given to those who are full members of a political community (Marshall, 1950). According to Max Weber, there are three significations of citizenship: economic, political and social (Weber, 1981). However, the nature and content of citizenship vary with the form of state. For example, the quality of the rights of European citizenship and Chinese citizenship is very different. There are three elements of citizenship: Civil, Political and Social. Civil right refers to the individual freedom like freedom of speech, freedom of
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We can see, European citizens have all the freedom mentioned above but for Chinese citizens, we can say none of the freedom mentioned above they can enjoy. Political right refers to the right of political participant. There are quite obvious differences between Europe and China. European citizens have the right to vote for the president but China citizens not. Social right refers to the economic welfare and security. Both Europe and China have their welfare system but the welfare system in Europe is well-developed than China. For example, students in many European countries like Germany, France, Finland, Netherlands and Denmark can enjoy free tertiary education. However, the educational support for Chinese student various with the city they live, especially the difference between urban and rural area. We can find the nature and content of citizenship have…show more content…
China is developing the citizenship on their way. After the reform of China, the living standard of Chinese citizens has improved a lot. However, the civil, political and social rights still vary in Europe and China nowadays, especially civil and political rights. It seems that the social rights will be improved in the future due to the government policy on urban-rural harmonisation, but the civil and political rights are difficult to improve after ignore it for a long period.

Reference
1. Barbalet, J.M., 1946. (1988). Citizenship: Rights, Struggle, and class inequality (pp.32). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
2. Janoski, T. (2014). Citizenship in China: A Comparison of Rights with the East and West. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 2014.
3. T.H.Marshall. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
4. Vásquez, I. & Porčnik, T. (2015). The Human Freedom Index: A Global Measurement of Personal, Civil and Economic Freedom. WA: Cato Institute.
5. Weber, Max. (1981). General Economic History. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
6.

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