For one thing, the raging flame of nationalism and the spread of the Industrial Revolution throughout the European Continent forced major European powers such as Germany, France and Britain to vie for more resources to fuel their industrial manufacture and compete for new markets for their factory products. As such, these nations had their eye on Africa as a source of raw materials and as a market for their industrial products. To achieve their objects, the European powers occupied immense areas of Africa during the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, which heralded the era of European imperialism in Africa. During the imperial period, the European nations with strong political, military and economic power muscled their way across the African Continent and shouldered the weak ones aside, completely dominating every aspect of the African people. Strategic motivation also played an essential role in the scramble.
Colonialism According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The Key Concepts (2000) colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (p. 45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (p.122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (p. 8). The African continent has experienced direct European colonialism from the 1880s. According to A. Adu Boahen ( 2000), the period 1890-1910 represents the conquest of Africa by whites and the period after the World War 1 up to 1935 is called ‘‘high noon’’ (p. 13) of colonialism.
The Europeans used the military to force Africa into letting them have their land. Africa used their military to fight back. With both of them using their militaries, it often created conflict. he European imperialist designs and pressures of the late nineteenth century provoked African political and diplomatic responses and eventually military resistance. During and after the Berlin Conference various European countries sent out agents to sign so-called treaties of protection with the leaders of African societies, states, kingdoms, decentralized societies, and empires.
The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were time periods of expansive colonisation in which countries particularly those in Asia and for focus of this essay, Europe, wanted to expand their influence. This influence was portrayed in colonies, in this time period of the beginning of the eighteen-seventeen’s western European countries were at the forefront of their influence. The plane of Africa was one of the main focuses of this period for the Europeans. The United Kingdom, France, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Turkey all had a respective representative proportion of Africa under their influence. Only Liberia and Abyssinia had been left untouched.
INTRODUCTION 1. Background 1.1. Colonialism of Africa According to Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths and Helen Tiffin in Post-Colonial Studies- The key Concepts colonialism is ‘‘the specific form of cultural exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe over the last 400 years’’ (45). It is the implanting of settlements on a distant territory (122). Ania Loomba defines colonialism as the conquest and control of other people’s land and goods (8).
There, labour was needed and labour was available but in different places. The need for labour sprang from the inherent demographic difference between the Americas and South Asia, from the impact of European expansion and from the specific labor tasks that the colonists required. The Atlantic slave trade paid much attention to the role of the slave trade in British North America and West Indian colonies. According to Kenneth Morgan (2007: 18) “the transatlantic slave trade was an important business enterprise within the British Empire for nearly a century and a half, from the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 until the trade was abolished in 1807”. In this period the slave trade and its capital turnover made a substantial contribution to the economic development of the British Empire.
“The age of imperialism” is a term which refers to activities lead by the Great European Powers of the 18th throughout mid-20th century, which includes “The Scramble of Africa” and the Belgian colonisation of the Congo, Belgium being one of its significant participants. Leopold’s crowning in 1865 permitted him to travel overseas and eventually reach his goal of creating Belgian colonies in the African continent. He was able to colonise the Congo by persuading alliances with great plans and intentions for the Congo as well as a return of local supplies. The colonisation of the Congo benefited Belgium with economic growth and allowed Belgium to become World Power, while Congo was restricted in its development. Colonisation in Africa was regulated by the rules set during the Berlin Conference but this did not refrain Leopold from taking full advantage of the Congo.
Imperialism was a major cause of WW1 because Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the industrial Revolution (BBC, 2008). The three countries competed for economic expansion over the whole of Africa. This caused plenty of conflicts between France & Great Britain and between Germany on one side and France and Great Britain on the other side, almost precipitated a European war between the three nations. Sometimes colonies are acquired after a fully-fledged invasion or a fight against the local population. British control of South Africa was established after a series of campaigns and native tribes like the Zulus, followed by two magnificent wars with the Boers (farmers of Dutch extraction) (Quizlet, 2013).
Hochschild's argument successfully claims that European imperialism in Africa (specifically that of King Leopold) led to devastating effects on the natives and their land. The nineteen-chapter, two part book starts off with a brief introduction. This introduction sets up the first part of the book, where the Hochschild describes the early life of Leopold and his main explorer: Henry Morton Stanley. From the first European-completed expedition of the Congo River and its basin to the Berlin Conference, Hochschild explains the story behind Leopold’s reception of the Congo - specifically how he gained power of the Congo with only the permission of
The industrial revolution propelled African imperialism to a level the world had never seen before. During the late 19th century, borders in Europe became difficult to alter and the only way to expand was in other continents like Africa. Europe exposed Africa’s weakness and preyed on them, leaving the continent in disarray. The industrial revolution induced African imperialism for economic prosperity, the rise in cultural and social power, and political motives. Economic prosperity had a major impact on the advancement of African imperialism.