The European Union (EU) is an alliance of fifteen independent states based on the European Communities, initiated to enhance political, economic and social co-operation among European nations. EU is the result of the initial cooperation and integration between six countries, namely Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg and the Netherlands. The main mission of the EU is to establish coherent relationships between the member states and their people on the basis of solidarity. Moreover, one of the main objectives of the EU is to promote economical and social growth and this has been somewhat achieved thus far through the creation of a single market in 1993 as well as the single currency in 1999. Introducing a European citizenship, as well
Eastern and Western European countries had many differences on economics and political structures. Both the East and the West tried to achieve an absolute monarchy, which can be described as a type of government where the monarch has complete rule over everything. Although both had an absolute monarchy at some point, they were structured differently and one much more successful than the other. In Eastern Europe the members of nobility had almost all of the control over the poor peasants who lived in their community. They controlled their judicial and economical state.
Functioning of the EU is based on the political and legal control system, which includes the supra-national and national-state regulators. The main EU legal structures are the Council of Ministers, European Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Justice. EU Council of Ministers is the main intergovernmental body composed of the foreign affairs ministers of finance, economy, agriculture, transport and others. The Council of Ministers shall meet as required and solves most of the issues by a simple majority. Some questions (e.g.
Their role is to debate and ultimately pass laws as well as the EU budget but the Council is the one that dominates the discussion. There is no "European elections": European citizens do not "vote on EU policies except in periodic referendums on EU membership or treaty reforms" and European Parliament elections are regarded as "mid-term polls on the performance of national governments and parties by the media and national parties."
The European Union is based on a collection of treaties between the member states. The dynamic nature of EU polity, whose aims, policies, institutional structures and membership have been in a continuous and vibrant process of development and expansion for several decades, is all-pervasive in the history of the legal order of the Union. Generally, states chose to create the European Economic Community (EEC) and subsequently, for valid reasons made changes to the treaty. Constitutional and supranational cooperation between states was accentuated with the advent of the Single European Act (SEA) , the Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice treaties. The inter-institutional disposition of power with the EU and substantive areas over which it has competence experienced significant changes.
Introduction While it is certainly true that the EU´s foreign policy has embraced the domain of human rights in many ways, the question of whether the human rights principles play an essential role in the EU´s foreign policy, and therefore shape this domain of external action is way more complex. Starting point to undergo this analysis is the question of which kind of power Europe represents. It is clearly notable that Bull’s notion of military power is not sufficient to justify the promotion of human rights in EU foreign policy, neither in an essential nor in an auxiliary manner. Even Duchene´s and later on Twichett and Maull’s notion of civilian power, point in the direction of economic power rather than military but still in the context
GCIB Program: Introduction to UK Graduate Study Module Code: HUMS 3007 Assignment 1: Essay Referencing to European Union, current situation and advantages and disadvantages of being a member of European Union. Module Tutor: Omeed Aminian Student Number: Submission Date: 21/11/2016 Word Count: (Excluding references and cover page) European Union (EU) is one of the greatest organizations of 28 countries which are established in November 1st 1993. At that time there was only two countries Maastricht and The Netherlands. The European Union is formed with the purpose of ending the frequent and great bloody wars between neighboring countries after Second World War. The main purposes of the European Union are to promote or explore greater social, political and economic harmony among the countries of Western Europe especially the countries which are mostly affected by the Second World War.
Introduction Although European integration from mid 1940s has continuously forged a wide spectrum of unity among European states, the integration carries three institutional challenges towards the states. First, democratic legitimacy and sovereignty of European states are constrained due to political integration. As parliamentary sovereignty of a national parliament is contested by transfer of powers and the European Court of Justice (ECJ), its parliamentary supremacy diminishes. Second, a national government faces constant challenges from conflicting interests between the European Union (EU) and national governments over EU’s common policy. Third, economic integration carries major challenges towards a national treasury such as loss of full-autonomy
enlarging policy agenda”. This characteristic of the Council(s), and the central roles of both the Council(s) of Ministers and the European Council in all areas of EU decision making, are the basis for the transformative, as opposed to merely reproductive nature of everyday ‘intergovernmentalism’ in the EU. Council negotiations on all levels today are a far cry from classical, intergovernmental negotiations/ diplomacy, and even from hard intergovernmental bargaining over the distribution of gains from substantive cooperation as envisioned by LI. EU member states do not interact in a vacuum, beginning each new set of negotiations with a tabula rasa. Rather, they act as members of the EU’s ‘executive’ in charge of long‐term governance: “[g]overnments
Modern democracies can be defined by there representativeness. This is why the electoral system is at the centre of democratic regimes. Since the first representative democracies, electoral systems have evolved and shaped the political system of countries. Thus, the question of the effect of electoral laws on the political system can be raised. The electoral laws form the legal framework that determines the transfer of votes into seats in political institutions.