The European Union Model

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As a modern political project, developed historically from a coal and steel community to a social, economic and political entity, the European Union distinguishes itself as a political union with unique characteristics. Therefore, the literature in the field analyses the European integration process, its institutional structure and governance style in an attempt to define the nature of the EU Model.This essay discusses different academic approaches and the main findings. Some scholars (e.g. Hoffmann; Millward) rely on intergovernmental approaches, while others (e.g. Haas; Lindberg) follow neofunctionalist theories and supranational focuses, in order to understand the roles and responsibilities of the key actors involved (Bergmann and Niemann,…show more content…
As a result, the literature in the field shifts its focus from trying to differentiate to emphasizing on the interconnectivity and the simultaneous relevance of both theories (Schout and Wolff, 2010). The EU political order was viewed as a hybrid of two models of governance – intergovernmental and supranational (Bromley, 2001). According to the former (Caramani, 2011) the EU´s political responsibilities include: regulatory policies (regarding the common market), redistributive policies (CAP), Macroeconomic stabilization policies (ECB, EMU), Citizen Policies and Global Policies (CFSP). Thus, the Member States transfer to EU institutions competences and powers, which were previously essential only for the statehood. The Supranational Governance (Bromley, 2001) regards the theory of ¨widening and deepening¨ of the EU project, implying that further economic, political and social integration facilitates greater Europeanization…show more content…
In comparison to systems of nation states, the EU model resembles both parliamentarian and presidential systems (Schünemann, 2012). The former, because the European Parliament appoints the President of the Commission and can even dismiss the Commission; and the latter due to the institutional division between administration and Parliament – the Commission is supervised by the Council. In conclusion, the studies of the EU are still ongoing and it is quite challenging to produce specific and fully inclusive definition of the EU political order. Due to transfer of powers from national level to EU level, as well as the further economic, political and social integration, the interdependence between Member States and EU institutions is increasing, especially as domestic developments, as well as interaction between separate states, are influenced by decisions at EU level. As a whole, the EU is unique, new political order, beyond national and intergovernmental

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