A strength of this study could be the selection of stories and schema stimuli within these stories. This could, in contrast, be a limitation to the reliability in that to recall a memory, the brain is dependent on the stimulus of a specific schema, and if not given the stimulus, one would only be able to recall some aspects of a memory and not others. However, a limitation could be the non-variance of participants, leading to the recall of details from both perspectives, which could be seen as a strength in the
Perception is the organisation, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. Like perception, logic plays a role in critical thinking. Critical thinking is the process in which one mentally explores deeper than the superficial matters at hand into the deeper layers in order to find out what the real issues are. However, when it comes to weighing their beneficial impact on the critical thinking process, logic and perception are by no means equal. While logic is firmly rooted in reason, perceptions are just as firmly rooted in one’s senses and can easily be corrupted.
Most important, this model allows for investigation of clients ' level of conformity and idealized identification with the dominant culture as well as their rejection of their own culture.”
As defined by Julia Kristeva, intertextuality is the idea that all texts are made possible through the texts that came before it (Lemaster). In other words, each text builds off of the ideas of previous texts in order to make a new argument. Similar to this idea, identity is not created by an individual nor a single event, but rather it is an accumulation of past memories and experiences. In his article, Ron Eyerman explains how memory influences the changes in individual and collective identities and how memory helps to “orient who they are, why they are here, and where they are going” (Eyerman 161).Therefore, it is appropriate to say identity is intertextual since each generation’s collective identity builds off of previous generations. As memory changes a collective identity over time in order to appropriately reflect past experiences, the ideologies of these groups also change.
Introduction: The cognitive level of psychology studies the different mental processes by which humans obtain information. Some of these mental processes include: memory, perception, problem solving and attention. Memory is a cognitive process by which humans store and retrieve information. However, it has been proven that memory is not an exact capture of our past, but it is reconstructive, in which false memories are created. The reconstruction of memories can be affected by different factors, such as: language, prior knowledge or expectations.
Case-based reasoning Case-based reasoning is a problem solving paradigm that in many respects is fundamentally different from other major AI approaches. Instead of re-lying solely on general knowledge of a problem domain, or making associations along generalized relationships between problem descriptors and conclusions, CBR is able to utilize the specific knowledge of previously experienced, concrete problem situations (cases). A new problem is solved by finding a similar past case, and reusing it in the new problem situation. A second important difference is that CBR also is an approach to incremental, sustained learning, since a new experience is retained each time a problem has been solved, making it immediately available for future problems
Humans form mental models of the world using a system of beliefs, which also include their underlying assumptions. The real world they perceive is actually a cognitive creation in their minds; a mix of their thoughts, beliefs and external stimuli. Our senses only provide us with limited information; inferences fill up the remaining gaps. Perception and expression are two very different things. Languages play an integral role in affecting the perceptions and building blocks of reality that we exist in, and in the end show through expression the world we have perceived.
There is a study in which analyzes the behavior and communication of a person when they come into contact or are acknowledge about some other person or group of people. Hence, this study is known as social psychology. Many aspects fall into this topic and those aspects are presented in the film Crash. Crash a film released in 2004, depicts many aspects that fall into the social psychology realm.
Considered as a part of the broader topic called metacognition (monitoring one’s own cognitive processes), it differs from it in that it involves the knowledge of, monitoring of, and control of one’s own learning and memory processes, whereas, metacognition is an umbrella term that entails the self-knowledge about all cognitive processes such as memory, attention, reasoning, decision making, etc. Thus, it follows that all metamemory judgements are essentially metacognitive, but all metacognitive judgements are not metamemory judgements. For example, making judgements about the time to be allotted or required to learn something, the level of confidence about retrieving information from memory, or about the ease with which information can be encoded, general beliefs about one’s own memory functions and capacities all come in the purview of metamemory. Although considered to be dependent critically on memory, metamemory has different connotations to it. It has been referred to as the assessments or commentaries that are made about learning and memory (Metcalfe & Dunlosky, 2008).
The book has multiple chapters that focus on something that I am focusing on and that is our memory and mind. There is a chapter that mainly focuses on Memory, I feel that I could benefit the most from that one specific chapter. This source contributes more on the psychological side of why we are affected by technology. This is my one resource that challenges ideas instead of actually talking about actual facts.
Eagleman exemplifies that the majority of our actions and thoughts are due to the unconscious mind by sharing first-hand experiences of other people and explanations concerning how our mind works to analyze and perform activities that he supplements. I thought it was an interesting device for Eagleman to use examples and activities to further explain how the mind works, because there is no better way to learn than to perform and interact with the actual ideas being presented. He uses puzzles, like the ones dealing with cards and numbers, and visual representations that link to psychological traits like perception (p. 85-86). What sets this book apart from others is that Eagleman explains thoroughly as to why the mind does what it does when given a task, and it gives the audience an opportunity to learn about the unconscious processes we do not acknowledge behind the conscious decisions we make. In addition to the activities are real-life examples that Eagleman analyzes through psychology.
The reason that historians differ on the causes, effects, and who was responsible for “historical events” is because memory is reconstructive and unreliable. Therefore the written history of 9-11 is affected by bias because the writers, children, and adults memories are affected by the schemas of each one’s individual culture. This can change the recollection of 9-11 and other traumatic events. Memories linked to 9-11 differ between different cultures.