Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. System theory System theory is an inter-disciplinary theory which consist a set of concept, construct, facts and terms which describe and explain the characteristics and phenomena affecting with any system. Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24)
Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
Competency 1 As a teacher, I understand this competency to mean that I must be aware of human development processes, and use this information to plan instruction and continue valuation that will inspire students and cater to their individual developmental and needs. I will need to know normal stages of cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development from early childhood through the completion of twelfth-grade. Being a teacher, I will need to identify developmental differences that characterize students and consider developmental variation for instructional planning, along with effective learning experiences and assessments. I must understand how physical changes, along with social and emotional changes can disturb a student’s progress
Learning is a process that brings together cognitive, emotional and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing or making changes in one’s knowledge, skills, values and world views. According to Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive constructivism- humans construct their own understanding by reflecting on their personal experiences and by relating their new knowledge with what they already know. Humans create their own ‘schemas’ to make sense of the world and accommodate new knowledge by adjusting their ‘schemas’. For example, for a student to learn multiplication, he/she needs to have a good idea of addition and grouping objects. Here, the new knowledge of multiplication is constructed from/on the existing knowledge of repeated addition.
Psychodynamic Theorists also believe that children go through qualitatively distinct stages in their development. In my classroom, how I could apply this theory is by engaging the child on who they think they are, and how it will affect their future. Identity plays a major role in this theory, by engaging the child on who they think they are, I feel I will be able to assess their ability to learn. The humanistic theory
Through the developmental study of the child, Jean Piaget composed the Theory of Cognitive Development to illustrate how a child constructs an understanding of the world around them. I aim to describe the key components of Piaget’s theory in order to comprehend how a child establishes their own world and also how the Theory of Cognitive Development might influence me when working with babies, children or adolescents in the future. The aim of Piaget’s theory was to demonstrate the constancy of cognitive structuring in children at different stages in their lives over a long period of time. Piaget based his studies on his interests in the qualitative characteristics of development and also the qualitative difference in children’s thinking.
He also believes that children’s physical and social environment is important in children’s cognitive development. He believes that children are active learners who gain knowledge from their surroundings. Children learn through taking in there surrounding and modifications, and multiple cognitive development occurs through collaboration. Piaget’s thinks that children and adolescent’s cognitive development explains the changes in logical thinking. •
I believe that all children are individuals, unique in their abilities, from a wide diversity of backgrounds and cultures, and they also have the right to be treated with dignity and respect. Educators are observers and designers who have to observe children’s abilities, interests and learning styles for designing a curriculum that fulfill everyone’s needs. Observers also play an important role on noticing individual differences and offering help to children who have lower ability to improve
Assessment for learning Theoretical and historical perspective linking to practice: There have been several theorists who have developed their theories, and have explained their key ideas, and their teachings, learnings, and assessments. Every theory with their own limitations provides their vision, and interpretation of different complex issues. These theories can be used by the educators to resolve their daily issues, and contexts. One of the behaviorist theory advocated by Skinner provides the key idea that behavior can be learned and unlearned, and/or can be replaced with appropriately acceptable behavior. According to him, a child’s behavior reflects the relevant responses they get against behaviors’.
A learner is comprised of countless diverse skills and abilities. Each learner is unique and has his/ her own distinct way of understanding new material. My personality consists of an intrapersonal, interpersonal, visual learner, who is social, security-oriented, and an introverted, intuitive, feeling, judging human. All these results create who I am as a person and who I am as a learner. Learning Styles Inventories
Hilary Jo Seitz suggests that teachers can identify and learn about children’s interests, experiences, questions, comments and conversations. Then help, extend and encourage them to follow their interests. After that, construct a plan for an effective learning experience that are connected deeply to their interests. Teachers initiate this process through their observation first, then documentation. The documentation could be presented through children’s conversation, photos and work samples.
According to VARK, learning styles describe all of the components that may affect a person’s preference in learning new incoming information. While there are several different variations of modalities, the main three are visual, auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic. Knowing your main learning style preference helps you to understand the best way to learn, identify certain strategies to aid in your learning process, and to know where your weaknesses are in regards to learning new information. There are several different tests that help you to identify what learning style you have. The three assessments I used to determine my learning style were the “What 's Your Learning Style?” from Educationplanner.org, the VARK questionnaire, and the Barsch Learning Style Inventory.
It is important to begin the training by teaching peers to recognize and appreciate individual differences. Next, review the specific target behaviors that are used to facilitate social interactions, such as initiating interactions, responding to initiations, keeping an interaction going, giving/accepting compliments, helping others/asking for help, and including others in activities. In addition, a list of prompts, scripts and role plays for peers to promote social interactions should be developed. Baseline data should also be collected during this planning phase through direct observation of the student with ASD. After all antecedent supports are in place, peers must be assigned to the learner with ASD and there must be at least one regular 15-minute interaction between the peer and learner on a daily basis.
(2014), it involves interpreting actions or events in terms of one’s present schemas, which is fitting reality into one’s existing ways of understanding. A schema is an organised, repeatedly exercised pattern of thought or behaviour. In accommodation the child’s knowledge of the environment is modified to incorporate new experiences or knowledge that able them to adapt to the broad aspect of cognitive demands imposed by the environment (Simatwa, 2010). Mollie and her friends display assimilation