With the increasing number of service providers, there is a need for a clearer evidence that the resources they expend produce benefits for people. Consumers of services and people who provide service want to determine if the program to which they devote their time make a difference. Specifically, they want better accountability for the use of resources. Outcomes must be measured, to see if programs make a difference on the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) of the students. While improved accountability has been a major force behind outcome measurement, there is a more significant reason; that is to improve services.
The main purpose of this chapter is to provide an outline of the research methods that will be used and to explain the procedures that will be employed to collect the data in the intended study. Since the scope of the study has been determined, and its aim and objectives have also been identified, it is very important to outline the methodology that will be adopted to pursue the issues relating to the research questions. This involves indicating the particular research philosophy and strategic approach that will be assumed by the researcher. Research is a systematic investigation to increase the sum of knowledge (Fellows and Liu, 2003). Marshal and Rossman (2006) define research as a systematic inquiry to provide a better understanding of
Pragmatism is a fundamental model or scheme that organizes our observations and makes sense of them (Allen Rubin & Babbie, E.R, (2011). In order to make the sensible study, the researcher will apply multi paradigms to meet the requirements of the research. This is because each paradigm separately has its own disadvantages. A combination of paradigms in the single study will help to reduce the weakness of the single perspective. Different paradigms in the single study provide an opportunity for the researcher to use variety of approaches and designs so that the study will compile both the authenticity and genuine information.
Moving: This step shifts the behaviors, values, and attitudes of the organization, department and individual to a new level. It involves intervening in the system through the changes in organization structures, process changes and development techniques. Also, there may be some confusion period during this stage as moving from the old ways to the new ways of doing things. 3. Refreezing: This step symbolizes the act of reinforcing, stabilizing and solidifying at new state and to a better level of performance after the change.
They do their research in different ways and in different situation and one of the major areas of research is education. So conducting research in educational life should be the most important aspects of each educator’s practical or professional life. According to the description of Best & Kahn (1993) research should be de-fined as: ‘the objective and systematic analysis with recording of controlled observations leading to development of principles, theories, generalizations, predictions, or possibly the eventual control of the facts’. So research is done in education for the improvement of school practices as well as to develop the ideas for the future aspects in professional life. The benefits of research in education are described below: Research is helpful to understand the topic in any subject with its principles in better and easier way such that new questions or theories will be solved.
This paper aims to critically discuss two mainstream thoughts in education that are crucial for improving or maintaining effectiveness at schools. I will discuss the various forms of effectiveness and how theorists interpret their view on classical theory. I will also show the differences between scientific management and classical organisational theory. School Effectiveness Effectiveness is the point to which an organisation or programme produces particular outputs (which are concrete and measurable) or outcomes (which may not be measurable). As Cameron (2005) states, “Organisations effectiveness is mainly a problem- driven construct rather than a theory- driven construct” (p. 313) Thus meaning that; what we as educators put in is what we will get out.
(iii) External environment which substantially impacts organizational behaviour. (iv) Scientific method using suitable technology —plays a critical role in optimizing human performance research, many researcher have tried to optimize productivity using different strategies [2-4] including motivation of employees , privatization of organizations , optimizing risks and optimizing rewards  etc. and its measurement
My study offers an understanding of the importance of educational assessment and focuses on different aspects. The research reveals global values of education might affect local education system. However, learning from other recourses, modification of the local recourses, knowledge, and practice can help to succeed the best change that suited to cultural realities and conditions. Studies show multisided approach to the education makes a contribution in terms of developing. The purposes of my study to research and demonstrate what makes an educational assessment and what might an educational assessment like?
As stipulated in the DepEd Order No. 39, s. 2012, interventions have to be made in order to address learning gaps. The use of Strategic Intervention Material, or SIM as it is commonly called, is identified as one of the suggested various intervention form that can bridge learning gaps. SIM is a remediation aid for the students at the level of their understanding and thereby increasing their academic achievement. SIM was defined by Bunagan, (2012) as meant to re-teach the concepts and least mastered skills, and in this study the science concepts and skills.