Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990) and Bodies that Matter (1993) works are fundamental texts of study for this thesis. Both works are deeply influenced specially by French structuralism and post-structuralism schools of thought. In Gender Trouble, Butler deconstructs the established, normative, Western construction of the Gay/Straight and hetero/homosexual binaries to discuss the lack of perspective regarding the heterogeneity of sexual identity and diversity as it is present in twentieth century society. Her arguments focus not only on the production of binaries and their rigidity from a sociological standpoint, but also on how the use of these binary structures can affect us in processes of sexual identity construction because of interpretations and constraints coming from various fields such as: the
James Whale’s Frankenstein portrays the eponymous doctor (named Henry in this adaptation) as being sexually indefinite, for lack of a better word. His is a grey and complex sexuality, brimming with hints and nuances, but difficult to pin down exactly. Strong arguments could be made that he is heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or even asexual; but speaking solely of the movie’s depiction, it’s likely that he lies somewhere within the spectrum of bisexuality. Henry’s heterosexual tendencies are most obviously exhibited in his relationship with Elizabeth, his fiancée. Their romance is evidently quite intimate, as Elizabeth feels Henry important enough to embark on a strange and potentially perilous journey to locate him – even after Dr. Waldman informs her that Henry has lost his mind.
Patricia Marie Budd's Hadrian's Anger is an interesting topsy turvy take a gander at a nation in the twenty-second century in part of what was Canada. In the nation of Hadrian, homosexuality is the standard and heterosexuality is disapproved of and, as of not long ago, unlawful. Hadrian was named for the gay Roman head, and its objective is populace control and rebuilding of the earth. Heteros are pointed the finger at both for gay bashing and for overpopulating the earth, so researchers have hereditarily adjusted people to make them gay person, albeit regardless some have straight or swinger inclinations. While it is not unlawful to be straight, anybody discovered having hetero sex is sentenced to death in view of the risk that overpopulation postures to the nation and the world.
Task here is to analyze the word as such when it intrudes the scenario of great novels in the literary genre. The novel which is subjected to analysis is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter. Anyways, to label Hester by such a crude word as “adulterous” would rather be insulting and so the paper tries to adhere to the term ‘passion’, which is the most gorgeous term in the dictionary. To make it clear, she had an unadulterated passion towards her “instincts”. So this paper claims her as the “grand feminine”, and her tragedy as the “Tragedy of Grand Passions”.
Jerome David Salinger, the author of the novel The Catcher in the Rye might be called the initiative representative of the WWII period of the literature aiming at the problematic of adolescence. The criticism towards the novel, which is the subject of this thesis, was shortly after its publication dispensed into two opposing points of view. The conservative camp found the novel “a nightmarish medley of loneliness, bravado, and supineness…wholly repellent in its mingled vulgarity, naiveté, and sly perversion” (Longstreth 30) , which was to some extent opinion compatible with the attitude of the majority of the parents that generation bringing up their children in 1950’s conformism stating of the society was lately prevailed by reviews considering the novel as “engaging and believable…full of right observation and sharp insight” (Engle 3) that “one finds it hard to believe that a true lover of children could father this tale” (Longstreth 30). The reason why the merit of the novel was so disputable was mainly due to the fact that it puts the values of the 1950s society- moral, cultural and ethical- under the critical light, in context of the period through the eyes of the adolescent, sixteen- year- old Holden Caulfield, yearning not to become the part of the society
As one of the most celebrated novels of the 20th century Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby has attracted critical attention for candidly portraying “about America, American character and the American Dream” (Miller 252). Few critics have comprehensively examined the American Dream that permeates the text. The novel reflects some of the images of horror of modern life in America. The reader can gauge the deeper psychology discovering the universal malaise of ‘sickness’ and common darkness in the individual gloom personified for the generation of twenties. It suggests much about the sterility, aridity, vacuity of modern life.
(Fitzgerald 38). This strange scene, narrated by Nick Carraway of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is one that has been interpreted in array of ways. But above all, through the lens of queer theory, the scene is indicative of Nick's non-heterosexuality. Once queer theory is applied to the whole novel, an entire new realm of possibilities emerge after characters are no longer expected to be heterosexual by default. Above all, one possibility prevails: through the lens of queer theory, The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald uses internal monologue to show that Nick is in love with Gatsby.
Patricia Highsmith 's The Price of Salt or Carol (1952) is one of the novels which are considered as the remarkable lesbian literature in the 1950s with a powerful and hopeful ending during the period of negative social norms toward homosexual relationships. Undoubtedly, it can be seen that Highsmith explicitly expresses and indicates the relation between the social context and sexual identity of homosexuals through the story and the protagonists of her work. Thus, the researchers realize that social context has an exceeding impact on the identification of sexual identity for homosexuals. In this section, the researchers would like to review eight of the related researches which associate with sexual identity and social context toward the
In “The Decay of Lying,” Vivian would identify with this movement based on his opinions of modernism and logic. Vivian explains to Cyril that “as a method Realism is a complete failure, and the two things that every artist should avoid are modernity of form and modernity of subject matter.” Wilde is, of course, speaking his own opinion through Vivian and develops his ideas throughout the Socratic dialogue. This line spoken by Vivian underscores the contrast in subject matter “The Decay of Lying” to the social norms. The essay attacks the accepted intellectual ideas of the time and hints toward homosexuality (although the term was not yet
War has- regrettably- been the answer to many conflicts in human history, ranging from the Sumerian’s conquests to the invasion of Iraq by the US and its allies. During its long history, war has been questioned and contemplated, especially through culture: music, poetry, literature, etc. Two prominent pieces of anti-war literature include Catch-22 by Joseph Heller and For Whom The Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway. Both novels express contemporary fears and questions on war: its impact, its conduct, and its purpose; as well as frustrations and dangers of a modernizing society, industry, and bureaucracy, however the former has a comedic tone, while the latter is serious. Tone is a very powerful and moving tool for both Heller and Hemingway in their novels.
Hollywood, like other mass media outlets, is a pervasive and potent ideological medium, which the ruling elites can use to propagate their own philosophy culture and morality (Lull, 2015). Shown in the case of Emmerich’s Stonewall, where an account of a major turning point in the LGBT national narrative, is fictionalized to fit a narrative familiar with the Hollywood edict of the White male lead (Retzloff, 2007; Erigha, 2015). This focus on the incorrect telling of historic events thwarts understanding of the totality of marginalization faced by racial and ethnic minorities and members of the LGBT community. Through participation in the film industry, members of underrepresented groups can counteract White male hegemonic practices, and influence the creation of media images (Collins,