Culturally competent service providers are aware of how their own cultural backgrounds, experiences, attitudes, values, and biases influence psychological processes. Although cultural competence is presented as a progressive and positive force for the challenge racism and discrimination There are a few obstacles that make it difficult to implement and in fact, achieved for the social worker and employers. Critique of cultural competence Critiqued that cultural competence for being unreachable. Critiqued that Could be privileging group characteristics over individuality – opens for stereotyping. Critiqued for implying that a client’s culture can be understood by the social worker who reads about cultures and asks questions, but the reality is more complex.
b) The strengths and challenges that may be faced are as follow. Strengths: • Giving the autonomy to the service user/community: Both the theories provide the client or community; here children and families to utilize their self-determination and their individual power to bring change. • Sustainability: The system theory tends to fix the maladjustment between the environment and the client for a long-term whereas the strength perspective focuses on amplification of the innate strengths within client; focuses on sustainability. • Holistic approach: Both the theories show a holistic approach; they cover different aspects, traits and systems which define the client and his behavior in whole. • Social Work values: The theories embody the core social work values such as valuing the dignity and worth of our client, their self-determination and protection as the first priority.
2. Adapted from Egmond & Bruel (2007) 184.108.40.206 Limitation of Theory of Planned Behaviour Although the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided researchers with a theoretical model for understanding individual’s intention and predicting the behaviour, Godin and Kok (1996) had found out the limitation of the theory itself which affecting the efficiency of the theory. They discovered that the TPB does not take factors such as personality demographic variables into consideration; and it is too ambiguous to define the variable “perceived behavioral control” and hence it is different to establish the measurement scale. In addition, Godin and Kok (1996) also commented that the TPB limited in the assumption that perceived behaviour control predicts actual behavioural control but it is seldom appeared in the previous literatures. At the same time, the TPB did not take the time interval between intention and behaviour into account but it actually affect the chance of the behaviour performed.
Results evaluation is concerned with monitoring outcomes made by the participants. According to this framework, higher level outcomes should not be measured unless positive changes occur in lower level outcomes. There are criticisms on the hierarchical nature of this model (Alliger and Janak, 1989; Alliger, et al., 2002; & Bates, 2004). There is a limited evidence to support the causal relations between the levels of evaluation of this model. It leads to an excessively simplified method of assessing training effectiveness.
3.4) Research approach In science there are two types of research approaches to processes social phenomena: inductive and deductive (Asante-nnuro, 2015). The main difference between inductive and deductive approach is that deductive approach associated with testing some of the existing theory but inductive aims to develop a new theory based on scientific results of research (Gamage, 2013). 3.4.1) Justification Deductive approach involves a passing from general to specific. According to Yin (2003) deductive approach assumes that research begins with a general theory regarding a specific problem (topic), and then specified in one or more hypotheses that can be checked using empirical data. In this study, based on the general theory developed
Since social workers work with a variety of populations, they experience some dilemmas during delivering their services to clients, hence the need for ethical conduct. According to Barker (2003) an ethical dilemma refers to a situation that occurs when two or more moral values seem to be equally legal but contradictory and the practitioner is required to make the best possible choice from among them. So it is important to have ethics that will help in taking ethical decisions. Barker (2003) defines ethics as a system of moral principles and perceptions about right versus wrong and the resulting philosophy of conduct that is practiced by a
Before a marketer can use a source it must first be checked for relevance, accuracy, and bias. There are both advantages and disadvantages to using secondary data. For example advantages would include that secondary data can provide a good starting point to further primary research, and can help define problems that should be explored in further research. On the other hand the major disadvantage is that the data found will never be specifically for your current product or business that the research is being conducted
Compared with quantitative methods, qualitative methods will be more suitable to fulfil the purpose of this reach, because this thesis is to study the factors that affect the established strategic choice, due to the fact, ideas, beliefs, ideas and opinions are difficult to measure in a quantitative way. Case studies are defined as "a survey of contemporary empirical investigation of the phenomenon, the real life environment, especially the boundaries between the phenomenon and the background is not very clear evident," (Yin,
Among it, the most important are that the results of the study can be generalized to the population where the data is obtained through sampling of individuals to make the results as representative as possible to the target population. It also helps to understand the cost and benefit of interventions and the magnitude and distribution of impacts of some intended programs, and provides first-hand information to analyze on how structural factors that affect different inequalities are produced. The extraneous variables can be controlled so that its effect on erroneous interpretation of validity can be removed. As each method has its own strength, so does their limitations. Some of the usually pronounced weaknesses of the quantitative method are related to difficulties related to sensitive issues like income or sexual practice, and since many groups such as the minorities are difficult to reach, information obtained may be incomplete and/or inaccurate.
Weakness: They draw attention to the importance of institutions but they do not suggest as the only (proof that one thing definitely causes another) force in politics; other factors play a role such as (how money affects people 's lives) development and diffusion of ideas. Some of the weaknesses of this approach is that it does not incorporate some parts of individual decision making to its analysis. Some of the strengths of this approach include its focus on the effect of political struggle on institutional results and how institutional results then affect political struggles. This approach should be more useful to the analysis of institutional development and policy making clear and sensible choice assume that people have a fixed set of preferences and they behave in manner that (makes as big as possible) the accomplishment of these preferences. One of the(like nothing else in the world) ideas (you think are true) of clear and sensible choice see politics as a series of total (of everything or everyone) action problems.