Introduction Modernism is the revolution in architecture, of which Le Corbusier is the pioneer. In early 20th century, industry was overwhelming and economy was dominating, what was emphasized was efficiency, function and accuracy. With the development of urbanism, need of the residence for increasing population became an urgent problem. Being aware of what the era needed urgently was a completely new form of architecture, Le Corbusier put all his insight of such a style into the book Toward a New Architecture to inspire mainly the layman. However, his thoughts provoked large criticisms of being too emotional as an Utopian Socialist from Edwin Lutynes who was a leading historicist architect.
According to William L. MacDonald, who wrote the book The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny, “Hadrian’s Pantheon is one of the grand architectural creations of all time: original, utterly bold, many-layered in associations and meaning, the container of a kind of immanent universality.” While Hadrian was not the architect of the very first Pantheon, he was the architect of the one that stands today. The first Pantheon was started in 27 BC by Marcus Vispanius Agrippa. It was unfortunately destroyed by a fire in 80 CE. The second Pantheon was commissioned by Domitian, but it was struck by lightning in 110 CE and burned down as well. In 118 AD, Hadrian completely rebuilt it and made it the majestic beauty that it is today.
However, Gothic architecture led a way to avoid those unpleasant problems and created light, pleasant and airy buildings. Before Gothic, architecture was functional-clearly defined structures that express their purpose; after gothic, architecture was not only functional but also beautiful. In the times before gothic architecture, Early Medieval architects struggled to spread the weight of heavy stone walls. This meant that most towers needed to be short, and buildings were thinner; otherwise, the sheer weight of higher levels (or large rooms and halls) would collapse into themselves. (此处应有一例子) One of the fundamental characteristics of gothic architecture was its height.
Modernist architect brought new materials and technologies to India, pioneering development of the future architecture in India. Anglo-Indian architects were practiced by Le Corbusier and Louis Khan, thus high profile names brought in to help promote a modern Indian. Buildings of the 20th century play a large and important role of India 's built environment, it is important for economic, environmental and conservation. Since then, more and more buildings and structures are made of reinforced concrete, not only these, civil engineering works such as road and bridges. More mundane items was also been extensively employed such as lamps , fence posts, and
To what degree was Vienna in 1900 recognised as the birthplace of modernity, namely Vienna hosted a rich intellectual and artistic life, which accelerated the fall down of the house of Habsburg? Zhongyao Li 11118326 Almost 100 years ago, Vienna was at the centre of a world on the brink of war. Before the outbreak of the World War I, the cultural explosion was interpreted in all kind so aspects. The notion of “Vienna 1900” has been paid more attention by the academia since Fin-de-siecle Vienna was published by Carl Schorske in 1981. Katherine Arens and Robin Okey are two of those scholars who are attracted to the beginning of twentieth century, the period of last days of Habsburg Monarchy.
John Abraham Research proposal 1) I chose Architecture as my art form due to the amount of creativity it takes to vision to design buildings just as it does to design a painting, or a novel, or a graphic design, or a sculpture. Houston is filled with vibrant structures and great architects. One primary example of Houstons amazing feats of architecture is 1400 Smith Street which is a very large skyscraper that is 619 ft tall and is located in downtown Houston. This one single building has 50 floors and is one of the largest buildings within the whole city. 2) Architecture is a very interesting and complex art style.
Art Deco paintings used rich colours to add panache to interiors and were a refreshing statement of an architectural design that was entirely concentrated on ornamentation. Art Deco was not categorized as independent from Modernism until 1966, when a retrospective on the 1925 exposition was done. The Art Deco movement took place between World Wars 1 and 2, most notably during the Roaring Twenties, and was embraced by a world that desired speed, luxury and opulence. It was the Swing era of jazz music, big bands and flappers, as well as the birth of the silent movie and silver screen charm where celebrities reveled in lavish indulgence. As a result of the considerable reforms in social, personal and economical matters of post World War 1, expensive, hand crafted and formal Art Nouveau lost its support and was replaced with a new design concept of mass produced modernism.
Machines came into existence to simplify the art. In the immediate years, before the war the modern designers had started to increase and just after the war, societies industrialized. Between the wars there was a period of a comfortable modern life filled with new technologies, new experiments and new possibilities. The war bought dynamic changes into people’s lives and thoughts. With the growth of modern design and its acceptance in the society new schools were brought up to teach the technology and industrial materials.
Domestication, for instance, allowed people to form the roots towns and cities, which then allowed for time to develop more technology. The discovery of iron, and the technology to use it, allowed man to build better homes, larger cities, and stronger tools. In today’s context the pinnacle of technology is computation, things like cell phones, computers, televisions all play a significant role in our everyday lives. An example of why technology is a part of our lives is described by Rana Forroohar’s article for Time Magazine which notes, “Large companies invested heavily in technology that increased efficiency and productivity, eventually creating entirely new areas of business and boosting employment growth” (12). Without technology, humanity would not have the ability to advance in the same way, as it has a major impact on society.
This led to spaces with a different atmosphere than that of the previous Romanesque churches. The stained-glass windows bring light and colour inside the building. This came with a cost, while roman arches support themselves the new technique required flying buttresses to take the load from the sides of the church down to the ground.There is a genuinely honest expression of structure in the Great Gothic cathedrals. . All these new elements, emphasized by a play of light and shadow and vertical spires and ornamentation, made Gothic architecture so sacred and