It indentifies how an individual behaves in the given circumstances. It also helps in knowing whether the leader is kind of cooperative person or he believes in dictating terms upon its subordinates. The theory also puts light upon how the behaviors of the leaders differ in different kind of situations, and how it helps in improving their performance. The theory indicates that those leaders who use different behaviors in their decision making process becomes the successful leaders. Kurt Lewin, during 1930’s, introduced a framework for defining the behaviors of the leaders.
The success of any organization in the current competitive world is directly linked to how well and consistently the organization performs, and the style of leadership plays a significant role in this performance (Ojokuku, Odetayo & Sajuyigbe, 2012). With this perspective, leadership can be defined as the capability of an individual to persuade and inspire others so that they contribute towards effectiveness and success of the organization (Yukl & Becker, 2006). Various leadership styles and their influence on organizational success have been advanced and studied (Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2014). One such style is the transformational leadership style, which according to Givens (2008), acts as a driving force for organizational performance and innovation. Besides, he adds, transformational leadership enhances employee job satisfaction as the transformational leader interacts with subordinates to motivate them to achieve maximum output in their work responsibilities (Jalal, Khawaja, Kamariah, Fosa, Muhd & Ahmad, 2012).
These theories were strongly influenced by James McGregor Burns (1978) but Bass (1985,1996) has more empirical research on this theory. Both of transactional and transformational leadership were defined to influence followers and the effects of the leader on followers. The transformation leadership can provide clear meaning and challenge with idealized and inspiring behaviors that could calculate potential risks, performing high standard of command. This leadership appeals to raise follower consciousness about ethical issues and begin their energy and resources to reform the organization. They enhance the team spirit, leaders using the inspiration, idealized influence to their follower, envision a range of possible future, make a clear direction to goal and commitment to the mission to their followers.
Idealized influence: Leaders act as good examples for subordinates to emulate. Leaders are ordinarily supposed to me admired and complimented my employees. b. Individual consideration: Transformational leaders observe specially the needs of subordinates and help them in attaining the highest level. Here they also act as tutor and counsellor (Bass, 1985) c. Inspirational motivation: Leaders here act as motivators.
Charisma or Idealized influence, the leadership providing a role model for employee to follow them. The follower have respect, trust and faith for their leadership style. Idealized leaders have a tendency to impact his/her followers in light of the fact that leaders show supporters an idealistic vision without bounds so as to persuade them to trust in their own prospects. Charismatic leaders show conviction, take stands, and engage adherents on an emotional level (Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F,
It is a recent theory of leadership that argues that the most effective leaders are servants of their people. Servant leaders get results for their organization through whole-hearted attention to their followers and followers’ needs. Unlike many approaches to leadership, which offer suggestions on how top-level leaders can influence and motivate those further down the hierarchy, servant leadership puts its emphasis on collaboration, trust, empathy, and ethics. The leader should be a servant first, leading from a desire to better serve others and not to attain more power. The assumption is that if leaders focus on the needs and desires of followers, followers will reciprocate through increased teamwork, deeper engagement, and better performance.
The basic task of the leaders are charging good sensations in the hearts of those who they lead them, and so when the leader creates a form of resonance - which give rise to a stockpile of positive lead to liberate all the good in people. Thus, the roots of the function of leadership is essentially emotional and how to connect at that level is what makes a great leader as I believe. I can summarize leader’s qualities into the following: 1) to be a seasoned expert. 2) That recognizes the weaknesses and work to eliminate them. 3) Discover strengths and work on their development.
I have always shared the view of (Naylor, 1999) that leadership is the process of influencing employees towards the achievement of organisational goals and organisational excellence. A review of various leadership theories and concept has significantly broadened my understanding on leadership. Significant among the leadership styles reviewed are transformational, situational, transactional, bureaucratic, autocratic and charismatic styles of leadership. I am particularly interested in the way these leadership styles are interrelated in operation and the possible interface that exists between given pairs. Transactional leadership explores the link between performance and reward and then trade it for targeted response that motivates subordinates to improve performance (Scott, 2003; Trottier et al.).
(Denning, 2005). If the leadership is uncertain about the information they are communicating this causes resistance in the followers to accept the information (Larson and Tompkins, 2005). Therefore leaders need to be articulate and constantly engaging their followers with passion (Lewis, Schmisseur, Stephens & Weir, 2006). Leaders communicate their values when they make statements about values and objectives that are important and formulate long-term strategies and plans for attaining them. They communicate values and expectations by highly visible symbolic actions relevant for cultural values, such as showing loyalty, self- sacrifice and going an extra mile.
A simple definition of leadership is: "The impact of an organized group toward the realization of its objectives." This definition emphasizes leadership viewed as a process, directed at specific populations affected, in order to meet the stated objectives of importance. The Word Reference Dictionary (2003) defines leadership as “the activity of leading; the body of people who lead a group; the status of a leader; the ability to lead.” Yet another traditional definition of leadership is: an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals (Allen, 1998). This definition stresses the fact that a leader influences more than one person toward a goal. Proctor (2004), stated that some leaders are bom and others are made.