After the American Revolutionary War, many Americans were opposed to the idea of a strong central government. They saw the idea of a strong centralized government as a gateway back into the familiar tyrannical government and abuse of power that they had just fought so hard to free themselves of. The idea of creating a new Constitution was unnecessary to some because the Articles of Confederation were already in place. The non-supporters of the newly proposed Constitution called themselves “Anti- Federalist.” Naturally, many of the supporters of the new Constitution felt that it was very much needed and they felt as if the Articles of Confederation were not strong enough to functionally run the government. The “federalists,” or supporters of the proposed Constitution, wanted to
While choosing electing official with common values and philosophies is a great way to get representation on social issues, interest groups are also helpful in keeping an open line of communication with elected officials on what is most important to the affected group. Interest groups use tactics to protect policies by focusing on the unknown consequences and keeping close relationships with government officials whose values are similar (Baumgartner, Jeffery, & Hojnacki (2009). One interest group who has knowledgeable lobbyists to affect public policy is the National Rifle Association (NRA). The NRA is a single issue group who advocates their position by using both the direct and indirect approach to rally support on issues in Congress.
Texas is the second most populated and second largest state in United State. Due to its size, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both American South and Southwest. Most of the population centers are located in areas of formers prairies, grass lands, forests, and the coastline. The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876. Like most of the states, it also provides for a separation off power. The state Bill of Rights is much larger than its federal counterpart, and has provisions unique to Texas. The Texas constitution defines the responsibilities of country governments, which serve as agents of the state. Greg Abbott is the current governor of Texas and Dan Patrick is the Lieutenant governor of Texas.
Student financial aid is funding that is available to students attending college. This financing is to offer assistance in covering the numerous costs that come with college. Financial aid is available from federal, state, educational institutions, and private agencies, and can be awarded in the forms such as grants, education loans, work-study and scholarships. In order to apply for federal financial aid, students must first complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Being qualified for grants is usually determined by financial need and academic credit. The application process is set by the agency providing the funds and is based on information given by FAFSA.
Because interest groups are protected by the First Amendment, they cannot be outlawed. However, their activities--particularly lobbying and making financial contributions--can be regulated. The 1973 Lobby Regulation Act, amended in 1983, is much more effective than two earlier attempts at regulating interest groups, one in 1907 and the other in 1957. In spite of its more stringent provisions, the total number of persons lobbying is much higher than the fifteen hundred groups and persons who annually register. The rise of bureaucracy requires interest groups to influence key points in government. As government does more for its citizens, more of their citizens become affected by government. Growing frustration with political parties, they believe the extremes are too liberal and conservative. The newest and most effective ways of effecting the government is by joining a third party or interest
In the United States government, there are three branches called the legislative, executive, and judicial branch. Out of these three, the judicial branch is the most powerful. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court, the court with the most power in the country, and other federal courts that are lower in the system; the purpose of this branch is to look over laws and make sure they are constitutional and reasonable. This process is called judicial review; judicial review by definition is the “power of a court to declare acts of governmental bodies contrary to the Constitution null and void” (Neubauer and Meinhold 492). Chief Justice John Marshall first brought up this power in the
The Federal Bureaucracy is an organization of non-elected officials of government or organization who implement the rules, laws, and functions of their institutions. Essentially, Congress and the president create laws that are vague. The bureaucracy is responsible for figuring out how to implement these vague laws in our society through regulations, forms and rules. The Bureaucracy consists of 500 departments with roughly 2.6 million employees. Although, the bureaucracy is not actually a branch of government it does have influence over the decisions of the three branches government. What is the purpose of a Bureaucracy? The main reason for a Bureaucracy is allowing efficiency in the daily functions of the government. In addition, Federal
Throughout a normal day in Washington DC, the hustle and bustle of lobbyist is taking place in the Capital building, White House and along K Street, which is the home of many of the lobbying firms. There are special interest groups, corporations and industries that hire in-house lobbyist or lobbyist firms to influence legislation to benefit their cause. For example, some of these causes may include, but are not limited to tax breaks, subsidies and changes to current regulations or laws. According to (APUS, n.d) there are approximately 12,000 lobbyists registered with the federal government and they are guided by the Honest Leadership and
The most important thing that the bureaucracy does is implement policy. Congress and the President make the policies and laws, but they have someone else (the bureaucracy) to implement them. However, they also make policy by rule-making (process of defining rules or standards that apply uniformly to classes of individuals, events, and activities). Also, according to Jillson (2016), "Congress passes laws that authorize government programs, the bureaucracy then writes specific rules that define how the program will be administered." So, when the bureaucracy makes rules you have to obey them because they have the force of law.
On the onset, it might appear as though the federal bureaucracy and Congress are two completely separate entities, with no relation to each other. However, upon a further look into the situation, it is obvious that the two work closely together, Congress makes and passes the laws, and the federal bureaucracy institutes and enforces those laws into action. Even though these two separate entities have their own specific functions, Congress is truly in control over the federal bureaucracy. Among the several different methods of control Congress employees, there are two specific measures Congress takes that standout among the rest. The measure of control is Congress institutes is Congressional investigations. These investigations can be launched
In his essay, Woodrow Wilson breaks down his essay into three sections, the first of which gives a detail of the history of public administration. Without delay he concedes that technically public administration has been around for a long time. However, he supersedes this through claiming that no one had studied in depth the field and systematic knowledge of public administration until the previous century. He details of during the period of and preceding his essay, people would disproportionately focus on the constitution of the government. These people would focus on the relationship of the constitution and how the laws were made, what laws could be made, and who made the laws. Their focus did not adequately pertain to the actual implementation of these laws.
The intent of this criticism is not to point the many flaws of bureaucracy, rather to better improve upon it. I believe its important to first establish that not all public bureaucracies can be seen as dysfunctional just because one is. An example of this provided by Knott and Miller is that when the New York City Police Department found corruption in its vice department, it didn’t mean that all police officials were a suspect of the case (Knott & Miller, 1987, p. 118). Furthermore, in the United States, most interactions with local bureaucracies are fairly present. A study presented by Knott and Miller from 1963 presents that Americans feel much more equal treatment from bureaucracy in comparison to other parts in the world. 83% of Americans felt their bureaucrats tried to give equal treatment, where West German reported 63%, 53% in Italy, and 42% in Mexico. Granted this study is outdated, but it still gives a temperature as to how Americans felt about our bureaucracy (Knott & Miller, 1987, p. 118). In addition, its important to note that within reason, we should expect particular bureaucratic dysfunctions to appear. As an example, some bureaucrats experience trained capacity, where some do not experience it at all. Similarly, some organizations experience increasing rigidity, but some do not (Knott & Miller, 1987, p. 119). With this, bureaucracy experiences a ton of criticism because almost all that they do is public, meaning a lot of light is shed on anything irrational, dysfunctional and/or counter-productive that takes
The Norton Museum of Art located in Miami is a popular art museum that collects, preserves, studies, displays and uses fine arts educationally. It is an interactive non-profit community visual arts museum that showcases permanent collection along with hosting some rotating exhibits, receptions, gallery talks, educational programs, workshops for master artists and special events all year round. The museum has eight spaces that include classrooms and galleries that are changed into meeting spaces that can accommodate up to 200 people for special events. The Museum Store is located at the main location and it has a huge collection of books, original works of artist pottery, jewelry, greeting cards, fine art prints, postcards and children’s things.
Special interest groups use strategies such as lobbying, Court case involvement, and creating a positive public opinion of themselves to influence political policy making.
Clientelism in Everyday Latin American Politics by Tina Hilgers gives a welcoming dynamic on what is the relationship between Clientelism and Democracy. The aim of this book is to go beyond the traditional perspective of Clientelism “is a vestige of authoritarian regimes that undermines democratic institutions and processes” (p.4). As such Hilgers attempts to present the different ways in which Clientelism “may or may not undermine democracy” (p.5). The main argument in this book is that “Clientelism can erode, accompany, and or supplement democratic processes”. (p.5). Hilgers moves away from the assumption that Clientelism is contextually embedded and for Hilgers to strengthen her argument, then therefore has book included applicable points