Obviously the electoral systems adopted in many former colonies were not always appropriate to meet the needs of the particular country, as the colonial power was usually very different socially and culturally from the society colonized (European Parliament, 2011). This highlights the main objective of SMP. Plurality elections serve the purpose of creating a “manufactured majority”. As one can imagine, this means that the number of seats for the leading party is artificially boosted while simultaneously penalizing minor parties. The subsequent “winner-take-all” system enhances the leading party’s legislative base, thus focusing on effective governance as opposed to representation of the general public (Norris,
Trinidad the British colony did not have the same political history as did Barbados and Jamaica (Older British colonies). In order to preserve the British political order, and its control over the island, in 1832, Trinidad was governed by what is now called: ‘’Crown Colony Government’’. However, due to many movements (Labor riots, trade union movement, the people’s national
“The reason why the sun never set on the British Empire: God wouldn’t trust an Englishmen in the dark.” Princeton Professor Duncan Spaeth once claimed turning the poetic way of declaring the British as the feared and mighty ruler of the world against them. European imperialism in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries resulted in the carving up of areas of Africa and Asia into vast colonial empires. This was the case for British colonialism in India. As imperialism, or a policy of extending a country 's power and influence through diplomacy or military force, spread the colonizer and the colonies viewed imperialism differently. By 1857, the British, through the East India Company, directly ruled two thirds of India.
Arriving in India in 1498, Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer who had navigated the first European nautical path to India across a body of water. However, the British arrived later from Britain later in the early 1600’s, while utilizing the same paths used by Vasco da Gama. Led by Sir William Hawkins, Hector was the first British ship to anchor in India on August 24, 1608. Subsequently, trading ports were established in various cities by the British. Exerting power through numerous methods, the British influence and control in India increased to an extent that it was controlling many parts of the country.
According to Afigbo (1966) & Uchendu (1965) the British Colonial Administration did not understand the political systems of the Igbos unlike those in the Northern and western parts of Nigeria where dictatorial rulership were in the hands of a few -as a result, these parts of Nigeria had powerful chiefs-; the British colonial administration "(...) naively concluded that the Igbo were living in "ordered anarchy"(Uchendu 1965, p.46). Therefore, the British colonial administration appointed people and called them chiefs. Afigbo (1966) & Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965) were of the opinion that those who were handpicked as Warrant chief were not in earnest credible men who were indigenous rulers –though in some case credible men emerged. Nwabueze (1963) (cited by Uchendu 1965, p.47) argued that "the people who were appointed warrant chiefs were "those who impressed the District Commissioner with their courage to come forward and meet the Europeans. The traditional rulers seldom passed this test, and so were, for the most part, left out".
Without this money stolen from Africa, there is a major lack of development, and many Africans struggle to survive in a country with an insufficient amount of resources. A reason why this money hasn’t been returned to Africa is due to the British economy strongly depending on it. The imperialism shown when the British empire was present has done exactly the main goal it was originally meant to do. The colonization of Africa allowed Britain to grow in power, and grow its economy making it a stronger nation. Now, after the British rule was disbanded, the money earned from before stayed with Britain forever, which was an effective strategy for keeping Britain wealthy and in power.
To what extent is it accurate to label the governance system of British Imperialism in the 19th and 20th century 'indirect '? Britain was the greatest colonial empire followed up closely enough by France in the XIXth century up to the XXth. Britain was also one of the first major colonial powers and therefore lead the way for the different types of ruling such as direct rule, indirect rule or a mix of the two. The oxford dictionary (1) defines indirect rule as such: “A system of government of one nation by another in which the governed people retain certain administrative, legal, and other powers.”, the nation being the colonizing power and the other being the colonized. On the other side direct rule is defined as having “centralized administrations […] that stressed policies of assimilation.” and “ European administrators were present at all levels of government – even down to local affairs” (2).
By 1909, there was seen a great deal of political consciousness amongst the Indians. Similarly, political parties like Indian National Congress and All Indian Muslim League had emerged. By then, the British were much influenced and affected by these political parties. As previous reforms and acts did not meet the political aspirations of all the Indians, the British realized that in order to introduce new reforms to impoverish the grievances of the Indians they needed to cater to these two political parties. Besides this, there were also other factors which led to the formation of Minto-Morley Reforms.
However, the situation began to change when the British started interfering in administrative matters in the 1870s. British intervention in Malaya led to the signing of various agreements with the British. Sultan or Raja was forced to accept a British Resident. Residents are
Introduction: By the middle of the 19th century, the British had already gained direct or indirect control over almost all of India. British India contained the most populous and valuable provinces of the British Empire and thus became known as "the jewel in the British crown". However with control came subsequent resistance, which grew rapidly over the years to come. This resistance gradually resulted in the emancipation of India from imperialist, Britain. This research task will assess two conflicting parties and their ideals involved in liberating India from British Colonialism.