E. Vacuoles are storage facilities for either nutrients for or waste from the cell. Vacuoles are found in eukaryotic cells. They are much larger in plants and help maintain the form of the plant cell by filling with water. F. Lysosomes contain enzymes created by the cell for use in digestion. It is created through the work of both the ER (enzymes made here) and the Golgi apparatus (packages the proteins into a lysosome).
The oxidation of these molecules is primarily used to transform the energy contained in these molecules into ATP. ATP os a large source of energy for muscle contractions and can therefore be referred to as "energy currency" of the cells. The fuel molecules is first converted into acetyl-CoA and then can be inserted in the Krebs Cycle. Looking at the path of a nutrient, such as glucose, the oxidation of the molecule takes place in the glycolysis. The product of the glycolysis is pyruvate.
In order for an enzyme to carry out these functions it must work in conjunction with molecules such as substrates that are specific for each type of protein, and Pilar Feldbush General Cell Biology February 12, 2015 Lab Section K Lab 5: Enzymes coenzymes which aid in transporting the substrate to the protein’s “active site” (a hole or groove designed to fit only a specific type of substrate). Once attached, the protein can now move on to its destination, whether it be to the bloodstream, digestive system, or any other organ within the body. The ability for the substrate to attach to the enzyme is what allows the enzyme to hold and maintain it’s shape, which in turn directly impacts it’s function. The shape of an enzyme can be altered through the process of denaturation (the unraveling of the protein). Denaturing occurs when an enzyme is exposed to higher temperatures of heat and causing it to break the weak bonds that hold the molecule together.
INTRODUCTION Enzymes are biological catalyst that alters the chemical reaction rate without itself being altered which reacts with the substrate and converts the enzyme substrate complex into different molecules – product. Enzyme plays the consequential role in functioning of life process such as for growth, digestion of nutrients, excretion of metabolic waste, energy provider to brain and muscles and thus directly or indirectly involved in every biological processing of life. Apart from numerous life functioning role, enzymes are also used in industry-oriented procedure such as for drug delivery in biomedical research, production of biodiesel in energy sector, production of jams and syrups in food industry, treatment of sewage in waste management
After one cycle of PCR ,two copies of DNA strand are produced and after two cycles , four copies of DNA strand are produced and so on. It multiplies after each cycle and make number of copies of DNA strands from single DNA. The end result is an exponential increase in the total number of DNA fragments that include the sequences between the PCR primers, which are finally represented at a theoretical abundance of 2n. Almost 20-30 cycles can be carried out in one hour. PCR applications are helpful in diagnosis of majority of hereditary or non heritable diseases, this technique is also applied in molecular biology and microbiology to identify certain bacteria and viruses that can cause serious health problems.
The SPM was set to 34oC. Seven test tubes were used in determining the optimal temperature – in the first test tube a solution of 5mM p-Nitrophenol Phosphate with a buffer of pH 8 was used, when the 10 units of enzyme AP was added into the test tube (final volume of 3ml) then the experiment was immediately under way. The test tubes contents were hastily transferred to the cuvette and the put into the SPM, the absorbency readings were recorded every minute for a total of 10 minutes. This haste ensured the enzyme would not have ample time to form product that would have been unaccounted for, thus resulting in skewed readings and a faulty report. When the results for the first test tube were recorded, then the next solution/mixture was prepared.
Both lactose and maltose are complex carbohydrate macromolecules. 7. What is the role of starch and glycogen? a. Starch and glycogen are both storage molecules, they are designed to be stockpiled and saved until the organism needs them. Once needed these molecules can be broken down into glucose and used towards ATP production.
3. GROWTH AND CELL DIVISION OF PHYTOPLANKTON Phytoplanktons have diversity and are of both the types prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Cell division is the vital process for regeneration. Prokaryotic forms of phytoplankton which comes under domain bacteria divide by basic process of cell division like binary fission. Eukaryotic phytolanktons which comes under domain eukarya are divide by the process of mitosis.
100ul of Folin reagent was added to the wells and incubated for another 20 minutes. The absorbance was measured at 630-700nm. A standard curve of absorbance vs. protein concentration was plotted and the protein concentration in the diluted sample and the total percentage of activity were
Microorganisms such as bacteria import nutrient materials that are needed for their growth and survival from the environment as well as exporting metabolites. As the cytoplasm of microbes is separated from the environment by the hydrophobic plasma membrane which is impermeable to hydrophilic solutes, most of the hydrophilic compounds can only pass through the plasma membrane by means of integral membrane proteins which include carrier proteins, permeases or transporters due to the permeability barrier exerted by the phospholipid components of plasma membrane. Movement of solutes in and out of bacteria can be classified by the following processes: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, group translocation, endocytosis and exocytosis. As related to active transport and group translocation, energy is invested in active transport