The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
2.2 Grammatical metaphor Grammatical metaphor is one of the most interesting theoretical notions developed by Halliday (1985/1994) within Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG). Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical
Cohesion as described by Halliday (1991) is one of the features that combine to make up the textual component in grammar. The textual components include the structural components (theme – rheme), information and focus structure (the given and new) and cohesion (Grammatical and Lexical). Halliday and Hasan (1976), refer to grammatical cohesion as including reference, substitution and ellipsis while the lexical refers to the different forms of lexical repetitions. Therefore, cohesion as Halliday and Hasan (1976) describe is a semantic relation that is realized through the lexico grammatical system. These elements as pointed out determine the texture of a text.
With this, Widdowson (1983) strongly suggests that communicative competence be taught alongside with grammatical competence. To make the decision of teaching both linguistic and communicative competence clear, Widdowson distinguishes two aspects of performance: “usage” and “use”. He explains that “usage” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his knowledge of linguistic rules, whereas “use” makes evident the extent to which the language user demonstrates his ability to use his knowledge of linguistic rules for effective communication. He also distinguishes two aspects of meaning: “significance” and “value”. Significance is the meaning that sentences have in isolation from the particular situation in which the sentence is produced.
1.Communication 1.1 Definition. Communication can be said to be trading of considerations, messages, or data, as by discourse, flags, written work, or conduct. It can likewise be known as Interpersonal compatibility. Communication is the craftsmanship and system of utilizing words adequately to grant data or thoughts. The field of study concerned with the transmission of data by different means, for example, print or TV.
At the beginning the author puts emphasis on how native speakers of a language decide if a text is a combination of unrelated sentences or is it a whole unified sentence based on hearing or reading it by the native speakers. The book ‘Cohesion in English’ showed the differences that identify the two aspects of the text, a unified whole and collection of unrelated sentences. It is informed that there are empirical factors which are text characteristics, they should be found in order to save as basis in the text. In a grammatical unit consistency is formed by a sentence supported by a clause to a group of clauses. A text is highly regarded as an exclusive semantic unit in the meaning related by a sentence or clause, however, it does not only resides sentences but encoded in sentences.
Communication cannot be separated from our lives. When people do communication, there are sentences which are uttered by the sender to the receiver, those sentences implied meaning that depends on who is the speaker, who is the audience, where does it take place, on what time, and how the context of situation where the sentences are uttered. Pragmatics is one of the linguistics studies that deal with this kind of thing. According to Levinson (1983:9) he stated that pragmatics is the study which are talking about relations between language and context that are symbolize in the structure of language. According to Yule (1996:3) pragmatics is the study of meaning that communicated by the speaker to the listener.
The work of Halliday and Hasan (1976) influenced scholars and researchers in rhetoric and composition so that, by the early 1980s, the two terms were distinguished. Cohesion is now understood to be a textual quality, attained through the use of grammatical and lexical elements that enable readers to perceive semantic relationships within and between sentences. Coherence refers to the overall consistency of a discourse--its purpose, voice, content, style, form, and so on--and is in part determined by readers ' perceptions of texts, dependent not only on linguistic and contextual information in the texts but also on readers ' abilities
Jayaraju (2005) says effective communication takes off from the base intelligibility towards the density of interpretability. In this connection. It can be allegorically being said that it is effective basse that makes the flight of communication reach its destiny effectively and successfully. In Nelson, 2008:301) This study adopts the definition of intelligibility and comprehensibility by Smith and Nelson (1985) for two reasons: firstly, their ability to reflect reciprocal relationship between recognition of words and understanding the utterance. As mentioned previously; and secondly, the distinction between two levels of understanding .within and beyond word boundaries.
and Hasan,R. (1976).Cohesion in English) Cohesion is introduced through the grammatical and lexical element that connect between parts of the text. Cohesion is considered one of the signals of coherence in the text. (Tanskanen, S.-K.(2006). Collaborating towards Coherence : Lexical cohesion in English Discourse.