It is noticed that contingency approach focuses on the need to familiarise the organisation towards the demand of changing technology and need for generating innovation from environmental and decision making uncertainty. Moreover, this approach to organisational design recommends that not a single method is there to handle the managerial problems. In addition to this, it also states that no organisational suit is present that has the ability to meet the requirements of all the situations (Adler, 2009). The main features of contingency approach to organisational design are as
Contingency theories put forth the idea that the success of a leader hinges on the specific situation at hand. A situation can be proven effective based on the leader or the leadership style attached. The factors that would determine this would include the task, the personality of the leader and the composition of the group that is meant to be led. Its basic assumption is that leadership-success or failure – is situational. There are a number of sub-theories that fall under the general contingency umbrella.
Some modern critical theorists believe that it is the way we see things that is the cause of our power or powerlessness. The System Theory, the first thing of note is that system theory sees things as wholes. It does not believe that one would understand something better by splitting it up into parts. Modern systems theory is based on the idea that all share the same concepts. (Higgs, 2015) There are different ways of looking at a problem when studying the system theory .
They refer to Fielder’s contingency theory, path-goal theory, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership theory, and Vroom and Yetton’s normative decision model. Each theory is distinctive and different from each other. In the case of McDonald’s, it practices each theory to a certain degree. Fieldler’s contingency theory states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation (Williams, 2007). Different managers have different styles that do not change and are better suited for different tasks.
The complexity theory is a growing trend within recent successful projects. The fundamentals of the complexity theory have sprung to life since changes in society and the evolving nature of complexity within the project environment required a different approach (Saynisch, 2010). The complexity theory embraces the interconnectedness of systems and incorporates aspects such as transformational leadership and communication (Curlee & Gordon, 2011). Transformational leadership, especially its characteristics of learning and mentorship adjusts well to complexity within a project. The world has enough managers - what ensures project success is leadership.
One major theory that can explain what they went through and why is; Von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory. The Systems theory suggests that all entities are systems made up of different subsystems and all belong to a super-system and all are influenced by each other. The theory can be applied to both social and biological systems and focuses on the whole rather than parts, as the theory states: “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. The general systems theory focuses on two types of systems; the open system and the closed system. The open system is regularly used in social situations.
Crisis intervention theory into practice often filled with hidden uncalculated circumstances. Understanding a relationship to assist in solving a crisis. The perception of the information that the person has for the situation and the ability to be ready for whatever circumstances are going to present are the two critical determinants of success in this field (Everly & Mitchell,1999). Crisis interventionist main objective is to focus on the person in crisis other than the problem. The crisis is the way the person sees from their point of view, how they endure the crisis, interpret or how they emote during a situation.
Contingency Theory Contingency Theory Concepts A change in leadership research from concentrating on only the leader to looking at both the leader and the situation the leader is working in A leader-match theory: significance of aligning a leader’s style with the needs of a particular situation. Contingency theory is a theory by Fiedler that is a leader-match theory (Northhouse, 2010). In this theory leaders are matched to situations that they may fit in. Not only does the contingency theory look at the leader, but also it assesses the situation the leader works in. The effectiveness of a leader depends on how well they fit into a particular situation.
Let us discuss these features in little bit detail. ‘The Complexity Factor’ Management of an organizational change happens in a background that is exceptionally complex. Because, it is observed that creating a dynamic multi-dimensional sphere where complete understanding of all the factors involved is next to impossible. There are a various of theoretical reasons for this: Fundamental systemic nature: The systemic, socio economic and political context within which they operate is characterized by a large number of factors and by multiple connections. These systemic features often harvest such negative behavior and make it very difficult for change managers to implement change.