In Feminine culture, the society is more worry about relationships, encouragement and better quality of life. At business level negotiation, for Femininity society, the relationship and quality of good or service matter the most than the price. At Corporate level negotiation if a corporate is from INDIA or United State which possess Masculinity culture and other from Vietnam which is a Femininity culture it is necessary to understand the culture to get better deal. As already discussed, dealing with Feminine culture soft bargaining negotiation could be more impactful compare to hard bargaining negotiation. Whereas, when the parties are from India and USA, hard bargaining and principled bargaining could be used.
with other marketing variables to have a certain effect on the dependent variable, i.e. sales. The aim is to seek the best combination of the determinants of the sales increase. The effect of communication refers to the ability to reach, with appropriate messages, a more significant share of public. Such effect is examined in literature with different approaches: • sociological; • semiotic; • psychological; • socio-psychological.
In the context of China, Shimp and Sharma stated ethnocentrism as “the beliefs held by specific country’s consumers like Chinese consumers about the appropriateness, as well as an understanding of what purchase behavior is acceptable or unacceptable for China in regard to products produced outside the country” . Many researchers in recent years were focusing on the outcomes of consumer ethnocentrism and the related issues. They found, ethnocentrism, the country of origin and country image have an important role on buying behavior . Besides, most studies focused ethnocentrism models in different countries as well Nowadays, consumer ethnocentrism is becoming a major part of the product bundle. Besides, consumer ethnocentrism also can be explained as a reluctance to buy foreign products.
A major aspect of international branding is whether or not a firm decides to adapt or standardize its brand. In actual sense, the majority of global brands such as Coca Cola, McDonald’s and Nike tend to standardize not only their brand, but the majority of their marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion). Normally a major factor hindering firms when it comes to making an adaptation to the extent that the foreign market is culturally distant from its home market. Hofstede (1980) has researched the nature and extent of cultural differences. He conceptualizes “culture” as the "collective programming of the mind".
National culture influences innovation and creativity because it determines the values that get priority in the workplace. Culture shapes the development o a country and the areas they do best at. National culture distinguishes citizen of one country or group from a citizen of individuals from others. The differentiation in national culture is adequately explained by the Hofstede theory of national
In addition to the literature review on online shopping, consumer purchasing behaviors, decision-making process, influential factors and the 4P marketing strategy, the theoretical framework of Hofstede’s cross-cultural model will also be considered in the research analysis. In this section, we will illustrate several assumptions of how Chinese and American consumers behave differently towards online shopping. Assumption 1: Chinese buyers are less risk-averse towards online shopping than are American buyers. This assumption is explained by the Hofstede’s dimension on the levels of Uncertainty Avoidance which are various across countries. Hofstede defined “Uncertainty Avoidance Index” (UAI) as the country’s tolerance to the uncertain or ambiguous
It is also highly important to integrate inside-out and outside-in practices. The practices help the organisation develop the value chain innovations and turn the social restrictions to be its competitive tools for enhancing both social and economic values. Therefore, it is recommended for the company to consider and integrate inside-out and outside-in perspectives into their strategic CSR implementation (Porter & Kramer, 2006). The last step is creating a social dimension to the value proposition. It is very important to the firm’s strategy to be distinct, in term of value proposition, so that it can propose the unique positioning to meet and match with its target consumers.
Culture is the ‘lens’ through which we view the world. It is a central to what we see, how we make sense of it and also how we express it. As for the cross-cultural communication, which is also known as an ‘intercultural communication’ is the process of sending and receiving messages between different cultural backgrounds that could lead to different interpretations of verbal and non-verbal messages. Cross-culture communication is important nowadays, due to globalization, that crosses border movement of people, goods and data that brings more cultures into contact with one another and hence increases the cross-culture communication that usually relates to businesses and job opportunities, sharing of views and ideas, understanding of diverse market and etc. Hall stated that ‘‘meaning and context are inextricably bound up with each other’’ (Hall, 2000, p. 36), and suggested that to understand communication one should look at meaning and context together with the code (i.e., the words themselves).
National culture certainly has a great influence on business culture. Therefore, in order for international organizations to build successful business relationships with the members of other cultures, organizations should pay attention to cultural dimensions and be more culturally sensitive.
Should the Fair Trade Act protect MSMEs as a specific class of competitor since they lack the resources to compete with larger firms thereby benefiting from the competition policy? RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The study adopted an inductive approach, and it sought to analyze the impact of anti-competitive behaviour on Jamaican MSMEs from the reported instances of anti-competitive behaviour. Data was collected from newspaper articles, journals and Fair Trade Commission press release and research documents. As the data was narrative in nature, it was analyzed using qualitative methodology, namely content analysis. The content analysis started with the reading and screening of newspaper articles, journals on the competition policy of South Africa and Singapore, and how they address issues specific to their MSMEs.