The teachers usually teach from a textbook trying to help students understand the content and this adds to rote learning .Therefore at all levels in a school system the textbook plays a significant role as students are assessed through examinations that are within the limits of the textbook and for the teacher it acts as a structuring device in a particular sequence that can be applied
The discourse evolved interaction between the teacher and his or her students in teaching and learning process. 1.7.4 Discourse Analysis According Johnstone (2008), discourse analysis is an analytical process in a relatively explicit way. The analysis can include aspects of the structure and function of language in use. 1.7.5 Textual Analysis In this study, the discourse analysis is specifically focusing on the textual analysis. According to Fairclough (1992), the interaction between the teacher and students in a classroom discourse is mainly focusing at the specific levels of organization such as in turn taking, topic selection and
One way to challenge learners in the classroom is through the use of Bloom’s Taxonomy. According to Heather Coffey (2004), Bloom’s Taxonomy can be used across grade levels and content areas. By using Bloom’s Taxonomy in the classroom, teachers can evaluate learners on multiple learning outcomes. Within each level of the taxonomy, there are a number of tasks that move learners through the thought
Schools and teachers assess students in numerous methods, for a diversity of reasons – ranging from extensive classifications of judging, sorting and ranking, to more subtle explanations, determining students’ needs and level of understanding. Educators have distinguished a very strong difference concerning summative assessment and formative assessment; however the distinction is believed to be modified between how data is generated and how assessments are used. This paper will focus on formative assessments, and the difference between formal formative and informal formative assessments. Proceeding to the observation on how assessments can be used in the classroom effectively, the aspects of assessments and procedures to follow. Concluding
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
Modeling, Coaching and Scaffolding are three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments. A constructivist classroom environment provides opportunities for students to question the material being presented and explore various topics as their interests. The aim is to produce a democratic classroom environment that provides meaningful learning experiences for autonomous learners. In a constructivist classroom, the teacher and the student share responsibility and decision making and demonstrate mutual respect. Teachers should be explaining, modeling, and using guided practice in the classroom.
It can be utilized for all students, in all evaluations and branches of knowledge, and for foundational information and higher-request intellectual and non-psychological aptitudes. How they mentor their students to accomplish development and authority frequently imitates the crucial components of the Formative assessments process (Hofman, Goodwin, and Kahl, S.2015). Interestingly, formative assessment is evaluation of students discovering that is intended to enhance (as opposed to assess) students’ abilities or their comprehension of particular course ideas. formative assessment are commonly done in class, can be mysterious, and are typically a great deal more centered around specific abilities or data. formative assessment give data to students and in addition educators about how well students comprehend particular course ideas, and are commonly low-stakes, as in they are regularly ungraded (Angelo, Cross,
2- Literature Review 2.1- Syllabus and curriculum Syllabus is a list of books which students study for a particular course in a school or college. It gives a direction to both the teacher and the taught to move in a specific manner to a specific goal.Awell-balanced and needs based syllabus sustains the interests of the students who are supposed to cover their syllabus within the certain span of time and which is to be evaluated in terms of marks and grades. “In addition to its practical benefits, a syllabus also gives moral support to the teachers and the learners, in that it makes the language learning task appear manageable” (Hutchinson& Waters PP-83).Yalden (1987) says: “Syllabus is a simple framework within which activities can be carried
Nowadays, there are a number of different types of assessments used in the classroom. Students are quizzed, pre-tested and tested and they are required to write essays, fill in the blanks and answer multiple-choice questions. These assessments are given by teachers as a method of determining whether or not the student has gained mastery over the content that is being taught. Individuals who teach reading operate in the same way. Given that one of the primary goals for teaching students to read is for them to comprehend the materials they read, teachers must devise a method of assessing whether students, in fact, understand what they read.
“To teach those four skills, teachers have to use some methods that can give the chance to the students to be involved in teaching and learning process” ( Richard and Rodgers, 1998) it means that the school, the teacher and the students as well decide the success of achieving the educational aims on the school level. In other words, teacher have duties on constructing the right lesson material formulating the proper aim, choosing and constructing the right lesson material according to the need, interest, and children development phase, choosing the method and teaching media and constructing the program and right evaluation. The students taught through a good method will get the chance to involve in the teaching and learning process, especially concerning those four basic language skill that must be mastered by the students. The relationship between this