Social immaturity in children is both a societal problem and also a personal problem for affected individuals, their families and schools. Kegan described a theory of how people become progressively more socially mature across their lifespan. Though a wholly original and creative contribution, Kegan’s theory borrows heavily from earlier developmental theorists, most notably from Jean Piaget. He described how children’s ability to think develops from birth through early adulthood. He theorized that children pass through predictable developmental stages in which their mind develops in complexity and appreciation (ability to accurately understand) of reality.
Even at early age children; children are prone to emotional problems such as anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem. 5) Purpose of the study – Has the reason for conducting the research been explained? The purpose of this study was to explore the emotional competence and emotional readiness. I found the following themes were proposed for further research were emotional competence in preschool children, what characteristics of the development of socialization appropriate skills. Emotional competence is based on the emotional intelligence model is defined as the interaction of emotion and cognition.
Framework of the Study There are theories and concepts that will greatly support this study. First of which is the Erikson‘s theory of Identity vs. Role Confusion. The theory has asserted that the ages of 13 to 19 years state that as children make the transition from childhood to adulthood. When they become adolescents, they ponder the roles they will play in the adult world. Initially, they are apt to experience some role confusion mixed ideas and feelings about the specific ways in which they will fit into society and may experiment with a variety of behaviors and activities (e.g.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Cognition is a process where different aspects of the mind are working together that lead to knowledge. Piaget’s cognitive development theory is based on stages that children go through as they grow that lead them to actively learn new information. Cognitive change occurs with schemes that children and adults go through to make sense of what is happening around them. The change that occurs is activity based when the child is young and later in life correlates to mental thinking. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development start from birth to adulthood and it begins with the sensorimotor stage, a child from birth to the age of 2 years old learns and thinks by doing and figuring out how something works.
Because child development is viewed from an environmental as well as a biological perspective Erikson’s theory highlights the importance of family in the care of the pre-school child. Freud and Erikson both studied psychosexual and psychosocial development. Jean Piaget brought new insight into the area of cognitive development. He described intellectual development as a sequence of four principal stages, each made up of several sub-stages. Piaget claimed that all children move through these stages in the same order, but each moves at his or her own pace.
It is vital to monitor a childâ€TMs sequence and rate of the developments in order to determine what type help they may or may not need in future. Each child in care could be recorded all areas of developments. Through the reference of the sequences, monitor what children can or cannot do at a specific stages in their lives. As said, while most children follow the same common pattern of development, they may reach the milestones at different ages, depending on each of the individual childâ€TMs ability and a range of personal and external factors that may affect them. The order in which the development of children would happen and the speed in which it would happen are
“Aside from stress, there are two alternative hypotheses for why partnership instability might be associated with children’s behavior problems” (McLanahan and Osborne, 2007). The first hypothesis is the selection hypothesis which place both partnership and instability and the child behavior problems together. For instance, a parent can have psychological problems and find it difficult for him/her to maintain it, and his/her child can display more behavior problems. The second hypothesis is the reverse causality, and this is when parents have a child who has a serious behavior problem that can cause more partnership instability. In addition to this, parents raising a child without being married is similar to parents who are divorced.
As I discussed above, Piaget believed that all children sought out information and they would naturally develop these abilities but Vygotsky presents a more logical theory. As children, our interaction with our surroundings and the people around us shapes how we develop. “According to Vygotsky, language is the basis for cognitive development, including the ability to remember, solve problems, make decisions and formulate plans” (Martin et al., 2010). When young children below the age of seven would say words to themselves, Piaget saw this as an egocentric and non-social act whereas Vygotsky saw this is an early learning and memorisation process. Once the child reached a certain age (middle childhood), they would stop talking to themselves thus developing what he called an “inner speech”.
2- Intuitive phase (4-7 years): children are sometimes able to grasp a problem solution by how the fell about it . The concrete operational stage: begins from (7 to11years). at this stage the abilities develop, such as the ability to think and classification and learn the idea of conservation . The formal operational stage: begins from (11 and above), in this stage the child become an adult and have the ability to moral reasoning and “use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular action “ (McLeod,
Piaget’s theory observes and describes children at different ages. His theory is very extensive, which starts from birth through adolescence, and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development, and memory. Piaget’s assume that children construct their own knowledge in response to their experiences. Hence children learn many things on their own without the interference of older children or adults. Furthermore children are naturally motivated to learn and do not need rewards from adults to motivate learning There are three separate stages of development in Piaget’s cognitive theory.