Examples Of Discourse Analysis In Literature

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1.2 Literature Review
The term ‘discourse’ refers to oral communication as well as gestures that achieve a Communicative effect (Gee, 1999). According to Gee (1999), discourse serves a number of functions in the classroom such as performing social activities and creating social identities in the classroom.
Discourse analysis is a methodology of analysis that emphasizes the importance of studying recordings of verbal and non-verbal discourse (Wood and Kroger, 2000). Critical discourse analysis is a method which helps to identify the relationship between language and social structure which includes elements such as power, identity and social roles (Fairclough, 1992). In particular, critical discourse analysis studies the methods in which discourse
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This approach that analyzes discourse as a form of text also looks at aspects such as cohesion and structure to determine how the text presents information and influences the identities and perceptions of the audience.
Two aspects of discourse analysis that are usually studied include coherence and intertextuality. Coherence refers to the way in which the audience is able to perceive the discourse as an integrated whole and extract meaning from it. On the other hand, intertextuality refers to the extent to which a particular text relates to earlier texts. Both these aspects of discourse are important for analyzing discourse in the classroom where each lesson has to build upon the earlier lessons. Wells (1992) has noted that language plays an important role in teaching and learning of science in the
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Furthermore, the teaching narrative plays an important role in shaping the meaning-making process in the students by promoting shared meaning and checking whether students have understood what is being taught to them. It also contributes to maintaining the narrative being held by the teacher Mortimer and Scott).
Scott (1997) has studied how teachers can use questions in the discourse to guide students through an explanation of the lesson. On the other hand, Halliday (1994) employs a different framework of discourse analysis called the systemic functional linguistic (SFL) model which studies the relationship between aspects of grammar and the meaning achieved by it. In specific terms, the SFL framework considers experiential metafunction, textual metafunction and interpersonal metafunction by analyzing the clauses used in the discourse for each of the three metafunctions of meaning.
Koufetta-Menicou and Scaife (2000) explain that the classroom talk which facilitates engagement with science should be such where the momentum of the teacher talk is shaped by elements such as questioning and wait time. The teacher should invite diversity of responses and offer
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