Skinner mastered. Some think that using Operant conditioning with positive and negative punishment and negative reinforcement works better than positive reinforcement. The positive reinforcement has consequences and comes with a rewarding outlook. This is a consequence that causes a behavior to increase. It would work out better if the adult explains to the child what was done and how to fix it than to punish with negative reinforcement.
Thus, leaders can sustain trust and respect. Teachers, employers, and parents should take responsibility to tell the bad effects of wrongdoing and are accountable for not telling the students, children, and the employees what is wrong, rather than blaming them. In addition, the leaders – teachers, parents, and employers— should constantly prove their confidence and belief to the followers—students, children, and employees. The reason why a positive response has such as strong impact is that if one gets a positive reward for a certain action, one naturally wants to continue doing that. Positive reinforcement might take little long to accomplish the goal, but it will surely and more effectively
Once you’re in one, you lost. And so has the child: No one wins a power struggle.” (Margaret Wilson, 2013) One of the best way to avoid power struggle and help a child who does not listen in class is work with that child calmly. Work with him or her in ways that honor his or her needs of feeling important. First build a positive teacher-student relationship. Even though the child is misbehaving let the child feel you still care about them, include them in activities, and recognize their success.
Bandura hypothesized reinforcement is necessary in the learning process(Glanz et al, 2002). B.F. Skinner (1938) conduct experiment of Skinner 's box, encouraging certain behaviours occur and gave it rewards after a desired behaviour occurred. Evidences were given to this hypothesis as well. Raj, Nelson, & Rao (2006) conducted experiments on working performance by giving reinforcements to reinforce worker to increase their willingness to work, result found that workers who received rewards increase their willingness to work. Del Chiaro (2006) studied the use of positive verbal reinforcement given by supervisor to employees could improve job satisfaction or not.
Toddlers are still learning how to voice their concerns and sometimes the best way for them to do so is to scream it out. While it is perfectly alright to guide your child back to sleep, try to avoid entertaining their tantrums because this can lead to a bad habit of using screaming in place of other acceptable emotional outlets. • Let Them Choose Their Own Path Allowing your toddler to make their own choices helps them feel like a big kid which can lead to healthy development. Next time bed time rolls around, let your child chose the nighttime story or the bedtime activity that the two of you do together. This helps them take on a little responsibility that may reduce the need for attention grabbing
The law of effect stands that connection between a stimulus and response will be strengthen if it is rewarded positively and it will weakened if it is rewarded negatively. However Thorndike revised this ‘law’ when he found that the bonds doesn’t necessarily weakened by punishment and some of the pleasurable effects doesn’t necessarily motivate the performance. Thorndike also found that performance will be enhance if feedback are given with practice. Also education should be prepared for life beyond school. Skills should be introduced when the learner is aware of their need and purpose of the skills.
Children actions depend if they see themselves as a good person or if they were neglecting from teachers and parents. Moreover, Piaget’s beliefs about intrinsic motivation and motivation are related to constructivism because they both deal with constructing ideas in our minds in order to learn, he believes that if teachers teach children and just fill student’s heads with details, facts and information’s without really thinking about the students and their experiences, opinion and future learning it will be difficult for students to learn. On the other hand, if teachers encouraging students to love the lesson and to love learning they will be more likely to success in their school and they will feel confident. However, Vygotsky does not agree with Constructivism. He believed that intrinsic motivation did affect children’s motivation, but he believed that extrinsic motivation was more effective in motivating children.
This implies that teachers have a special place in a child’s life to improve to the life that they already have by letting a child work on his own because this will give him more progress than helping him more than is needed. This shows that she wants what is best for children. Furthermore, readers can comprehend that Montessori wants what’s best for kids because she elaborates that teachers should “be always ready to share in both the joys and the difficulties which the child experiences.” Montessori explains that adults should be always ready to share in a child’s experiences. This implies that adults need to be patient with children, but always be ready to help them when needed and rejoice with them when they succeed. She also explains that teachers should always be “ready.” This display’s that a teacher should always be there to help each child and that a child should be able to approach her with any need that he has without feeling a resistance to her.
For each tasks the students completes teacher should provide immediate and accurate feedback. Feedbacks should be clear and positive for each student. Failure and success are derives on how parents and teachers etc motivates the students. According to the attribution theory strive to recognize people’s justifications when successes and failures arises in their life. When people have self-confidence and motivation on success they have the gut feeling also will put more effort to reach their goals.
TPR is defined as a method of teaching language by using physical movement to react to verbal input in order to reduce student inhibitions and lower their affective filter ( Asher, 2000). It allows students to react to language without thinking too much. This method can facilitate long term retention of students, and reduces students’ anxiety and stress. TPR emphasizes the importance of having the students to enjoy their experience of learning and to communicate in another language. Students are allowed to speak when they are ready because it is believed that forcing them to speak before then will only create anxiety.