Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Meaning and message are the special tools for instruction, and the language is the main goal of the lesson and the focus of activity. On the other hand, language is also a tool for obtaining the objective of the lesson (Solhi & Büyükyazı, 2011). Interaction occurs between teachers and their students in order to acquire insights into class-based learning. The second language classroom is a dynamic and complex series of interrelated contexts, in which interaction is regarded as being essential to teaching and learning (Walsh, 2006). According to Qian, Tian &Wang (2009), classroom communication is a problematic means.
Cooper & Simonds (1999) ????? viewed it as an instructional strategy which is concerned with teacher-student relationships and classroom communication. Cayanus (2005) stated that for giving examples, elaborating more, making the teaching materials clear, or spending time, some teachers often disclose or give information about themselves. Cayanus, Martin, and Myers (2004) ????? ?mentioned that teacher self-disclosure plays an important role in the class.
Programs for school leaders must help focus attention on ‘what are the aims of education” what is the purpose of school and what are the aims of the teaching and learning processes? Considering the perspective of the new field of “organizational education”, one should ask: how does the school organisation need
It is a process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It can be used to practice, plan curriculum, and to reflect on teachers teaching method. It also help us to provide information to parents, children and also administrators. Different ways of assessment are being used to allow the teacher to decide which instructional strategies are essential and which need to be changed. Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment.
Teacher trainees should be asked to find out the problems of students they experience during their teaching work in schools and they should be asked to find out the most suitable solution for the same. Teacher trainees belonging to other medium and faculty of Arts should be given more extensive knowledge of pedagogy of education. To increase the competency in teaching of in-service teachers, it is important by education department to arrange orientation programme, seminar, symposium, workshop etc. for
In our classroom, instruction must be organized, sequenced and presented in proper manner. This can be meaningful and understandable for the learner. So in the teaching strategy virtual aid must be used in our classroom for help the students. After the implementation of virtual aids in cognitivism teachers can do much better job of understanding, retaining and recalling the long division process. Flippen (2012), explained that cognitivism focuses on mind and especially mental process.
Instruction was defined previously as "the purposeful direction of the learning process" and is one of the major teacher class activities (along with planning and management). Teachers have developed a variety of models of instruction, each designed to produce classroom learning. Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2003) describe four categories of models of classroom teaching/instruction (behavioral systems, information processing, personal development, and social interaction) that summarize the vast majority of instructional methods. Each model differs in the specific type or measure of learning that is targeted. Therefore, as we make decisions about "best educational practices" we must be certain that we connect recommended practices with specific
PART C The Teacher’s Role, Student’s Role, Content Organisation, Delivery and Assessment in Learner-Centred Teaching Learner-centred teaching focuses on the process of student learning. It is based on the constructivist learning theory that emphasizes the student’s critical role in constructing knowledge through gathering and synthesizing new information and prior experiences. Furthermore, learner-centred teaching focuses on skills and practices that could be integrating in the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problems solving and so on. This is to enable students to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. As a result, students are developed
More specifically, the cognitive learning competencies expected to be developed by students will be identified, examined, evaluated, and compared to serve as basis for improvement of classroom teaching and learning; the curricular program will be reviewed, in particular the content and performance standards, instructional strategies, and learning resources towards a more contemporary, challenging, and engaging learning environment; classroom observations will be conducted to assess the performance of teachers and students and determine the effectiveness of the instructional strategies vis-à-vis the learning engagement; and opportunities for professional development will be reviewed to scaffold teaching methodologies in facilitating learning using the blended teaching approach. Thus, the data and information would serve as bases for innovations in teaching and learning to be able to enhance and discover contemporary teaching technologies, methodologies and practices towards quality teaching and to effectively meet the needs of the students and to support their improvement in the progressive paradigm of