According to Hammer and Rice (1965) contrastive analysis seeks to compare the sounds, grammars and vocabularies of two languages with the aim of describing the similarities and differences between them. Error analysis in language acquisition was established in the 1960s by Stephen Pit Corder as it is mentioned in the beginning. Errors may also be classified according to the level of language: phonological errors, vocabulary or lexical errors, syntactic errors, and so on. Error analysts distinguish between errors, which are systematic, and mistakes, which are not. They often seek to develop a typology of errors.
ABSTRACT: Error analysis is a branch of Applied Linguistics which was established as an alternative process of Contrastive Analysis (CA). Both methods explain sources of errors but in different ways. Contrastive analysis sees errors as results of First Language Learner (L1) interference only. But Error Analysis (EA) accepts many sources of errors like intra-lingual interference, overgeneralization, fossilization etc. Error treatment is not always easy for the teachers because the errors are infinite.
The four most serious grammatical errors were preposition, article, pluralization and subject-verb agreement errors, in which using the preposition and article correctly seemed the most challenging to the students. In terms of question 2 “What are causes of grammatical errors in writing?”, the findings from the students and teachers’ questionnaire showed that interference of mother tongue was the main reason for making grammatical errors. This was shown clearly in the students’ writing. They often obeyed Vietnamese grammatical rules to write in English, which resulted in silly grammatical errors in writing. Moreover, an incomplete application of rules and ignorance of rule restrictions were also negative impacts on students’
Interlingual Interference Language transfer or interlingual interference are also known as interlingual errors. It is defined as the result of language transfer which is caused by the first language of the learner. It is said that these kind of errors occur when the habits of the learners including system, pattern or rules interfere of prevent him/ her from acquiring the patterns and rules of the second language. Lado stated that interference is negative influence of mother tongue in performing the target language. Learners translate word by word idiomatic expressions, vocabulary and even grammatical rules of the learners’ first language into the second language.
This study differs from all the above studies as it investigates the errors made by EFL learners when they in english . Errors analysis is common phenomena in language learning for new learners. The study of errors analysis began in 1957, when Lado’s revolutionary book Linguistics Across Culture appeared, Ning (2012 : 4 vol
Linguists claim that these errors can be made by children when they acquiring their first language (Ellis,1994). Some linguists assume that there are many causes of these errors such as overgeneralization (Lightbown& Spada, 2013). For example, all learners of English whether it is their first language or second language put “s” on ‘foot’ to express
Brown (2001) asserted that there is a significant difference between mistakes and error where mistakes is the results of performance while errors is the result of competence due to lack of understanding the required knowledge or a gap in the learner competence. Furthermore, errors is considered or deemed an acceptable by the native speaker of such a language. Mistakes may caused by the strain, lack of attention, or laziness, but the learner can easily self-correct them if he detects them (Erdogan,
Errors in the use of plural s/es, for example: I have a lot of doll. Errors in the use of articles, omission of the article 'the', for example: At the end of term. The other strategies used by learners was "Interalingual Errors", result from effect of one language item upon another. Overgeneralization refer to the Interalingual Errors in which a learner extend the use of a grammatical rule beyond its expected
In the second error, it can be seen that the pupils were over generalizing the usage of negative past tense. Instead of adding infinitive form after didn’t, they transferred the past meaning. Again, in Malay language tense system, in general, the senses are rather simple and straightforward regardless of the concept of time. 4.3 Subjects-Verb Agreement The most errors done in this research was on subjects-verb agreement with the frequency of 50 and 43.9% from the overall percentage. Although the pupils made errors mainly on subjects-verb agreement, but they do have some basic understanding of it.
Questionnaire error This type of research error may occur in many forms: Content of the Questionnaire A questionnaire error may occur when the wording in the questionnaire is either wrong or one uses difficult terms that may be misunderstood by the respondent. It may also occur due to typo errors. The ordering and format of the questionnaire may also lack a proper arrangement or flow. The respondent may be confused, for example, one may not know whether the questions are related or each stands on its own. Method of delivery The method of delivery may sometimes lead to questionnaire error.