2.3.2. Second wave feminism Second-wave feminism (late 1960s - 1990s in the USA, but ongoing in various parts of the world) is concerned about the self-consciousness of women, their sexuality and reproductive rights in conjunction with seeking social equality for women (Rampton, 2014; Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). Second wave feminists are concerned about the sexualisation of women in the media both on the cultural and political levels (Hollows and Mosely in Hatton and Trautner, 2013: 65). In the history of America the woman’s movement during the 1960s and the 1970s was the largest social movement of all women’s movement in the world (Baxandall & Gordo, 2005: 415). America women’s movement developed in two separate streams, which are founded
All throughout modern literature many different types of critical perspectives can be found while reading. Of the different critical perspectives (such as; Cultural, Feminist, Historical, and Marxist) the Feminist critical perspective provides society with the most compelling view when reading literature. Through the Feminist perspective displayed in literature we are able to see things such as the discrimination and exclusion of women solely based on their gender, the objectification of women, the power and oppression that others hold over them, as well as the different gender roles and stereotypes that women face. In the play, “Othello” written by William Shakespeare as well as the book “Frankenstein” written by Mary Shelley, we are able to see the way the Feminist perspective is displayed, the way it allows readers to have a basic understanding of the struggles of being a woman, and why it provides the most compelling view when reading literature.
In contemporary society, feminism and the freedom to express and explore one’s identity make up a large portion of the issues that are at the forefront of public concern and that seem to be of paramount priority nationwide. Although these are often viewed as more modern topics and dilemmas, a nineteenth-century author by the name of Kate Chopin addresses similar ideas such as self-awareness, sexuality, and personal discovery through the main character, Edna Pontellier, in her novel, The Awakening. Throughout the plot, Edna experiences a progressive “awakening” in which she develops an enlightened knowledge regarding her own desires and interests, even though the conventions of the Victorian society of that era clearly opposed her behavior. From Grand Isle to New Orleans, Edna meets and befriends several people that all contribute to her journey of awakening, but, in the very end, it seems as though she has never been more alone and isolated. In a final attempt to escape the confines of her own life, she swims far out into the ocean and allows its caress to overtake her in what is implied to be an ambiguous suicide characterized by both triumph and tragedy.
Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility is a great example of her works that looks at the role of women in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Austen shows us the gender roles inflicted on women during this time period and how they are perceived. We see the strict gender roles that women were adhered to and the struggle for identity as a woman. Central to this novel is the vulnerability of women and the expectations surrounding gender influence everything and produce define results. Gender definitely determines and structures the world in which these characters live.
When these unfortunate events unfold Marianne is taught a little bit of “sense”. Marianne’s older sister Elinor, can be seen as the guiding light or “sense” in the story. Since Elinor had a sense about her she was rewarded with a happy marriage with her lover Edward Ferrars.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Martin’s claim of being Feminist Feminism is the promotion of women's privileges on the ground of the evenness of the sexes. In this scenario, George RR Martin a contemporary writer also claims that he is a Feminist but critics object this claim as his writings have misogynic elements which challenge its credibility as a feminist. In an interview with the Telegraph (2013), Martin remarks: “There was a period in my life when I would have called myself a feminist, back in the seventies, when the feminist movement was really getting going and growing out of the counter culture of the sixties,’ he says. ‘But the feminist movement has changed. Sometime in the 80s and 90s I read some pieces by women saying that no man can ever be a feminist and you shouldn't call yourself that because it's hypocritical, so I backed off.
Role of Women in Medieval Europe Women Women are one of the most important people, and they face discrimination and hardships all of the time. They are termed as weak and are often not treated well. Medieval Europe According to the Europe history, the medieval period or the middle ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th era. It all started with the downfall of Western Roman Empire and then got mixed into the period of Renaissance and the age of discovery. The concept of women changed a lot during the middle ages, there were certain factors which influenced the change in the role of women.
Key developments in feminism planning: past, present, future Wen Ting s1446051 Class A1 Introduction Feminism planning may be defined as an urban planning concept which is concerned with the needs of females. That means those planning regard females as the design theme and the implementation of these planning strategies mainly serve for females. While it allows us to recognize that women and men have different needs in society (Moser, 1993), women’s rights in urban planning have been ignored for a long time. Fortunately, over the past few decades, ‘an awareness of women’s issues and gendered nature of social relationships has entered the field of planning’ (Snyder, 1995: 97). As an important addition to urban planning, the study of feminism
INDIAN WOMEN’S STRUGGLE TO ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWERMENT Ayuta Mohanty1 and Puspita Das2 1- PhD Scholar, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 2- Associate Professor, CAU, Tura, Meghalaya Corresponding Author: Ayuta Mohanty Phone-9439965440 Email- email@example.com ABSTRACT: India, being a traditionally patriarchal society, has always shown traces of gender inequality. Indian women have been facing various forms of inequality since ancient times. The headlines of every morning brings news of eve-teasing, rapes, bride burning, women trafficking, female foeticide and various forms of violence against women. The people of this patriarchal society always prefer a male heir, who will continue their family lineage and will also provide them with economic and emotional security in their old age. And a girl child has always been considered a burden on the family.
Reflecting on Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own, Showalter faces the similar issue of women’s exclusion from the academy. Charting a long history of literary women, she drives attention to undervalued nineteenth-century writers such as Sarah Grand, George Egerton. Rather than defining a ‘universal’ woman’s text, Showalter preferred to identify a female ‘subculture’ which created those texts. She argues that, with the reemergence of a Women’s Liberation Movement in England and in America around 1960s and 1970s, scholarship generated by contemporary feminist movement has led to an increase in sensitivity to the problems of sexual bias or projection in literary history. And one of the most significant contributions has been the unearthing and reinterpretation of “lost” works by women writers, and the documentation of their lives and careers.