1413 Words6 Pages

CHAPTER 4
FUNDAMENTALS
4.1 Gait Analysis
The term “Gait” refers to the movement of locomotion which mainly focuses on human movements. The analysis of gait shows the graphical or digital view of movements with respect to exerted pressure points. Of all the human movements, walking and running are the most received study of bio mechanics. Where, the bio mechanical analyses of movement provide a key note to value the physical movements of our body. The two different types of gait analysis are pathological gait and normal gait analysis.
4.1.2 Temporal and spatial measures
Temporal and spatial measures examine global aspects of gait. Because, gait is a cyclical activity, the basic idea is that continuous step while walking of humans. For each and*…show more content…*

By using the “Force – time” principle these factors can be summarized. When a force applied from human to the ground or any material can be determined with compression, stress, shear and tension. The above fig.2 shows the bending and compressive forces acting on ground from the human foot. By focusing these physical features the analysis has to be mapped with sensing architectures. b) Physical parameters of gait The physical motion of human gives the real function and kinematics of gait. To investigate the structure of muscular mechanics, the following parameters are as follows. Step length It is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of opposite foot. Stride length It is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Walking rate It is calculated in steps per minute. Speed It defines the product of “Walking rate” and “Step length”. Foot angle It describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the mid points of foot. Hip*…show more content…*

d) Piezoelectric voltage coefficient “g” This coefficient is defined as the quotient of the generated electrical field E in a material and the applied mechanical stress T. gij = Ei/Tj = dij/ε0ε It depends on the direction of generated electrical field and the direction of the applied stress. Therefore it is given with two subscripts. The first defines the direction of the generated electric field and second the direction of applied stress. For example: G31 denotes an electrical field in direction 3 with mechanical stress applied in direction 1. e) Elastic compliance “S” “The elastic compliance constant is the ratio of the strain in i – direction to the stress in the j – direction”. For the directions 11 and 33 it is reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity. It is given in the following form: SE11 denotes the elastic compliance for stress and strain perpendicular to the polarization direction under a constant electric field. f) Piezoelectric coupling “k” This coefficient “represents the ability of a piezoceramic material to transform electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa”. This applied to piezoelectric materials in general, not only piezoceramics in

By using the “Force – time” principle these factors can be summarized. When a force applied from human to the ground or any material can be determined with compression, stress, shear and tension. The above fig.2 shows the bending and compressive forces acting on ground from the human foot. By focusing these physical features the analysis has to be mapped with sensing architectures. b) Physical parameters of gait The physical motion of human gives the real function and kinematics of gait. To investigate the structure of muscular mechanics, the following parameters are as follows. Step length It is the distance between the point of initial contact of one foot and the point of initial contact of opposite foot. Stride length It is the distance between successive points of initial contact of the same foot. Walking rate It is calculated in steps per minute. Speed It defines the product of “Walking rate” and “Step length”. Foot angle It describes an angle between the line of progression and a line drawn between the mid points of foot. Hip

d) Piezoelectric voltage coefficient “g” This coefficient is defined as the quotient of the generated electrical field E in a material and the applied mechanical stress T. gij = Ei/Tj = dij/ε0ε It depends on the direction of generated electrical field and the direction of the applied stress. Therefore it is given with two subscripts. The first defines the direction of the generated electric field and second the direction of applied stress. For example: G31 denotes an electrical field in direction 3 with mechanical stress applied in direction 1. e) Elastic compliance “S” “The elastic compliance constant is the ratio of the strain in i – direction to the stress in the j – direction”. For the directions 11 and 33 it is reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity. It is given in the following form: SE11 denotes the elastic compliance for stress and strain perpendicular to the polarization direction under a constant electric field. f) Piezoelectric coupling “k” This coefficient “represents the ability of a piezoceramic material to transform electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa”. This applied to piezoelectric materials in general, not only piezoceramics in

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