What Hooke’s Law states is that small deformations of an object, the displacement, or size of the deformation is directly proportional to deforming force or load2. In basic terms the amount of force you pull is proportional to amount the object stretches or retracts. F represents force measured in Newton’s and is derived from the slingshot when the rubber is released from its final displacement. x represents the length of the total displacement of the rubber band before and after its release. k called the “spring constant” is the variable we are trying to find as well is the total of the stress made on the object.
Galvanometer gives the deflection which is proportional to the electric current flowing through it. It works as an actuator by producing a rotary deflection. Also, known as a (pointer) in response to electric current flowing through a coil in a constant magnetic
It will help in improvising the design of currently used prosthetics (based on their radius of curvature values). They act as an indicator in assisting the alignment of prosthetic leg components. The analysis was done using a self-designed inverted-pendulum like apparatus in three different conditions: bare feet, heels and shoes. The centre of pressure coordinates were obtained using a force platform and Visual 3d software and were transformed from a laboratory based system to shank based system. The ankle-feet roll over shapes were plotted using origin and excel.
Introduction As the human gait cycle is a complex system designed to help people walk efficiently on a daily basis, it is essential to understand how the gait cycle works. From this understanding, one can make accurate judgements on whether or not double leg amputees should be allowed to compete against able bodied athletes in running events. This essay will discuss in detail the biomechanical perspectives on this situation and will provide relevant examples to substantiate the argument against allowing double amputee athletes from competing against able bodied athletes in running events. The human gait cycle is composed of the following stages: The double support phase where you have both feet in contact with the ground and then the single
In response to backward and forward sway, the ankle flexor and extensor is activated, respectively, so it is required to maintain stability using FES of both flexor and extensor muscles. Here, the control inputs are COP and COP' (velocity of COP), and the agonist (antagonist) muscle joint is a nonlinear time-variant model unlike the control inputs and muscle-joint models that have been proposed in the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY Virtual patient model A musculoskeletal model is used here as a virtual patient model. The virtual patient model consists of skeletal and muscular parts, so all dynamics are considered. Inverted pendulum models can be used to explore how CNS controls balance .
The purpose of this experiment was to use charged electrodes on conducting paper and voltmeter to discover electric field. The experiment also discovered the relationship between equipotential lines and electric field lines. The purpose of the experiment was to find if the theory that equipotential lines always run perpendicular to electric field lines hold true. The equation used in this experiment is E = ∆V/∆d. The experimental value yielded a result of y = -100x + 10 and the theoretical yielded a -100 V/m.
Newton 's First Law of Motion states that a force must act upon it in order for the motion of an object to change . This is a concept which generally called as inertia. This law also states that if the net force which is the vector sum of all forces acting on an object is zero, then the velocity of the object is constant. Velocity is a vector quantity which indicates both the object 's speed and the direction of its motion. Hence, the statement that states the object 's velocity is constant is a statement that both its speed and the direction of its motion are constant.
Upon the removal of the load or force, an object would return to its original size and shape. Mathematically, this can be expressed as F=kx, where F is the deforming force, x is the size of the deformation, and k is the spring constant. In this experiment, the spring constant of the plunger can be determined by applying force on the spring and recording the displacement of the spring plunger. When the force is plotted versus displacement, the slope of the resulting straight line is equal to the spring constant, k. To get the spring potential energy, the formula PEspring = ½ kx2. 2.
How much the body’s center of gravity moves while propelling forward defines efficiency. The gait cycle is pattern that is repeated which involves strides and steps. A stride involves the entire cycle of gait and a step involves just one simple step. In step, we have step time and step width, step time is the time taken for one foot hitting the floor and the other foot hitting the floor whereas step width is the distance between the both feet. The gait cycle is constructed by two phases which themselves are divide into periods.
(Engineers say "Stress is proportional to strain".) In symbols, F = kx, where F is the force, x is the stretch, and k is a constant of proportionality. If Hooke's Law is correct, then, the graph of force versus stretch will be a straight line. Tensile testing experiment Purpose of the experiment: Tensile testing is one of the most fundamental tests for engineering,and provides valuable information about a material and its associated properties. These properties can be used for design and analysis of engineering structures, and for developing new materials that better suit a specified use.The basic idea of a tensile test is to place a sample of a material between two fixtures called "grips" which clamp the material.