The Secretariat (Article 7 of UN charter), responsible for the administrative activities of the UN, it is headed by secretary general is Ban Ki Moon. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Trusteeship Council and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Realism and Liberalism are two of the main theories in International Relations best used to describe the structure of the United Nations. Classical Realism dates back to the works of Thucydides, Nicollo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes. Realism is the dominant theory of international relations because it provides the most powerful explanation for the state of war that is the regular condition of life in the international system.
Liberalism in international relations is represented by contradicting claims about the necessity of the conflict as a way of resolving contention among members of the international community and vice versa highlights the possibility of peace between independent states. American presidnet Ronald Regan in his speech beore the British Parliament stated that government based on respect for individual freedoms is reflected in its foreign policy of restraint and peaceful inclinations. (Doyle, 1997, page 205) Throughout the times, liberalism has gone through many changes and has established different varieties of the theory. The first stage of liberalism, known as philosophic liberalism, lasted from the 17th to the early 19th century. A philosopher, John Locke was the first one to point out liberal thoughts and views.
Introduction Liberalism is one broad ideology or rather a philosophy that is founded on the ideas of equality and liberty. This Ideology came as a revolt against certain ideologies and was then seen as an alternative to other ideologies, and now regarded as the leading if not the most prevailing ideology of the contemporary world (Gray, 1995:6). Liberalism, just like any other ideology cannot be well understood without the allowance of examination, improvement and progress. The theories of liberalism in the present society are more concerned and advocate a society in which elements such as individualism, equality and freedom can be displayed and uphold. This paper draws attention to contemporary liberalism and present society, although this can be seen differently in theoretical as well as practical altitudes that can only be determined by its dominance in different regions, other than that liberalism remains one solid ideology.
When we look at the basic features of neoliberalism, it is first of all "confronted with the analysis of peace and co-operation. Neoliberalism analyzes international relations at the unit level. Neoliberals, however, are concerned with the "system-level outcomes of unit-level causes. The basic principle of liberalism, democracy, continues to be the most basic principle of neoliberalism. According to neoliberals, cooperation between liberal democratic states is possible.
Many realists saw World War II as the vindication of their theory. Realists argue that the need for survival requires state leaders to distance themselves from traditional morality. Realism taught American leaders to focus on interests rather than on ideology, to seek peace through strength, and to recognise that great powers can coexist even if they have antithetical values and beliefs.  Thucydides, the author of the Peloponnesian War is considered to be the founding father of the realist school of political philosophy.  Amongst others, philosophers like Machiavelli.
It uses manipulated history, national and racist myths to provide a basis for their state. Fascism turns nationalism and ultra nationalism into a secular religion to provide legitimacy to their new modern nation-state. There is an emphasis on the national community over the individual, and the past and myths are brought up as political liturgy to give legitimacy and support to the new struggles, and are used to project the future. The fascists way to progress and the way to avoid the problems of the liberal capitalist society, (mainly the relationship of the masses with the state, the idea of individualism, and the tensions between the individual and society) lay in the Third Way, at the core of which is the myth of the regenerated national community, which implies that each fascism will inevitably be nation specific, and thus can accommodate several differing reactions to modernization. Thus fascist ideology, whether modern; celebrating technology and destroying tradition like Italian Futurists, or anti-modern; like the blood and soil trend of Nazism, is still a product of modernity, even if it seems completely contrary to other visions of
Hence, in explaining the endurance and emergence of the United Nations this paper mostly based its assumption power in the international system. Realism as the core theory of the international relations was presented. Similarities of the structure of the United Nations with realism as a theory was illustrated, so that the emergence of this institution can be explained from this side. Cooperation was introduced as the challenge for the international theories with appropriate criticisms. The main source of the endurance of the United Nations can be the willingness of the hegemon to use it as tool in order to promote its own interests and values in the international
This paper will use the two theoretical perspectives of realism and liberalism as frameworks for analyzing the case of UNAMIDs effectiveness. Those perspectives both provide good analytical frameworks for discussing collective security measures to be taken in peacekeeping in different ways. Liberalism emphasizes that the international system is characterized by interdependence and cooperation as opposed to realists, who holds the international system to be conditioned by anarchy. Liberalists place high emphasis on “peace-promoting” variables such as democratic governance, intergovernmental organizations and international trade i.e.globalization (Russett, 2013, 94). The liberalist perspective will therefore lead to a better understanding of
Liberalism is one of the main paradigm in International Relations beside the Realism as a dominant in International Relations theory, Liberalism have approach and related International Relations are called too of complex interdependence. Related to history Liberalism is derived and rooted from the latin word liber that means free. Still related to history of Liberalism, Spain and United Kingdom are the countries that employed and introduced what is Liberalism. This is proved with the main idea and the roots of Liberalism can be find from the writing of John Locke and Adam Smith. Liberalism itself developed in the 1970’s, at that year Realism was mould in that time.
The literature on foreign aid suggests that this phenomenon is usually considered from two different perspectives. First, foreign aid is a policy tool to influence the behavior of receiving state and promote national interests. Second, foreign aid is a tool to promote global prosperity and development. To address these different motives for foreign aid, I look at aid-for-policy deals developed by Bueno de Mesquita and Smith (2007, 2009) and aid for development purposes (Lumsdaine 1993, Noel and Therien 1995). Moreover, there is an expanding literature saying that both of concerns are true for aid allocation and cannot be mutually exclusive (Heinrich 2012).