Research approach can be categorized into quantitative and qualitative research (Yates, 2004; Creswell, 2009). For this study, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. The adoption of each of the approaches in any research process come along with their limitations; therefore biases inherent in any of the methods could nullify or neutralize the biases of other methods (Hurmerinta – Peltomaki & Nummela, 2006). Usually, quantitative research conducts a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research which focus on testing of theory (Bryman & Bell, 2011; Yin, 2008). Conversely, qualitative research emphasizes the words rather than quantification with data.
Section III. Choice of Research Method: Quantitative, Qualitative or Mixed? The selection of data analysis techniques to deal with research questions or hypotheses and the techniques chosen for the data collection is informed and guided by what we call the research method. Hence, research method is a procedure, and also the analytical techniques to be chosen and the methods to be chosen will also be dictated by the choices of the methodologies made and by the theoretical framework (Sumner and Tribe, 2008). Research methods for knowledge claim and strategies is of three types: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods.
Research Design This study will use a qualitative, descriptive research methodology. Qualitative research can be defined as an overarching concept of several forms of research which help to illuminate and explain the meaning of phenomenon in social settings (Merriam, 1998). The data collection methodologies included in qualitative research are observations, interviews, and analysis of written documents and artifacts (Patton, 2002). The interview using the guide questions will allow for greater analysis of individual depth and detail. The case study method is the preferred choice of methodology given that it allows the researcher to explore additional avenues of information that may arise in the case study of the participating higher education institution (HEI).
JUDGEMENT UNDER UNCERTAINTY ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman began work on a series of papers examining "heuristic and biases" used in judgment under uncertainty. They explained that judgment under uncertainty often relies on a limited number of simplifying heuristics rather than extensive algorithmic processing. This idea spread beyond academic psychology, into law, medicine, and political science and this research questioned the descriptive adequacy of idealized models of judgment. They gave insights to cognitive processes that explained human error without invoking motivated irrationality. One strategy that people apply is they make a judgment about the frequency of an event based on how many similar instances are
Secondly, use a variable response deadline; the participant can choose their own deadline, improving the accuracy across subjects. Finally, using the response latency approach within the GNAT test as its more reliable simply because each point is a continuous value. However, this is something that the IAT already has. Although, the GNAT can “effectively asses the strength of associate on between a concept and the poles of an attribute dimension” (Nosek and Banaji, 2001) the IAT is more reliable simply as it, “shows good reliability, which is a prerequisite for measuring individual differences,” (Rezaei,
Bryman (2010), argued that although the paradigm wars had subsided in recent times, there were still discussions as to the legitimacy of mixed methods. However, as researchers move into the 21st century; mixed methods legitimacy is no longer a debated matter. Journal of Mixed Methods Research (2009), has reported an increasing number of fields which originally relied on quantitative and qualitative methodologies have seen significant potential with mixed methods approach to research problems. Fields such as education, psychology, social sciences, behavioural sciences, and health sciences has greatly benefited through its full acceptance. Currently, all three methods perform on parallel planes in the academic community although qualitative approach is still viewed as inadequate for the natural sciences.
In quantitative research, variables are identified and defined, and then relevant data is collected from study participants. A strength of this type of research is that the data is in numeric form, making it easier to interpret. It also studies the relationship between independent and dependent variables and can address questions such as does a relationship between variables exist, what is the direction of the relationship, how strong is the relationship between the variables, and what is the nature of the relationship. To be able to discover and answer the cause-and-effect relationship is a strength of quantitative research. Lastly, in quantitative research, the study can either be experimental or nonexperimental, meaning clinical trial or observational study, allowing for different types of research studies to be conducted.
Why did we choose this? Justify its relevance. Content analysis is a strategy for outlining any type of object by checking different parts of its essence. This empowers a more target assessment than contrasting elements in light of the impressions of an audience. Content examination starts with distinguishing research directions and picking a unit or examinations.
It is primarily an exploratory research and is used to understand the innate often unexpressed reasons, opinions, and motivations of people (test subjects). It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research (Harwick, 2016). It can also aide in identifying trends in people’s opinions give deeper insights to the problem (Harwick, 2016). Structured and unstructured are the two types of Qualitative methods for collecting data. Focus groups, individual interviews etc.
The various methods and also methods are usually worthy of a variety of query and also involve both qualitative and also quantitative techniques. The actual report ends by emphasizing that explicit products utilized in programs contemplating offer brand-new prospects to comprehend and also consistently ensure