In The views of The Birmingham School, media culture induces individuals to conform to the established organization of society but it also lends resources that can empower individual against that society. (Kellner, D (1995)) In conclusion, calling attention to mass media, cultural studies relates to how the audience can decode the messages put forward by the media. More specifically in relation to their individual socio and economic background. This in turn can lead to the rejection of the dominant ideology. Whilst the Birmingham school, in particular Stuart hall would be in favour of the audience’s capability to decode the messages of the media The Frankfurt School has less belief that the audience form their own understanding but rather base their opinions solely on what the media encodes.
Strombach (2008) looks at four different phases of mediatization. In the first phase he realizes that politics is mediated, and this phase is important for other levels of mediatization. According to Strombach, this phase is essential for the media’s power over its audience in terms of influencing attitudes, opinions and perceptions, if people didn’t take the media’s view into account then their power would be minimal. Politicians also need to take the media into account when they are trying to shape the public’s opinion. In the second phase, Strombach states that the media have become more independent from government and political bodies, the media themselves are now using media logic rather than political logic.
Like political culture and the public political efficacy, perception/ public opinion can be influenced by the individual efficacy and the media effects, Lindsay Hoffman observes that, despite the media flow in content, media have a chance in setting public agenda and orientation beyond individual characteristics; individuals might interpret information differently to create contextual data. Other theorists argue about the role played by bureaucrats in influencing public perception, they ascertain that politicians and bureaucrats play an important role in manufacturing public opinion through a series of activities ranging from channeling televised programs, visits, and engaging in activities to mold certain orientation. 2.3.1 Spiral of Silence Theory The theory of Spiral of Silence was founded by Elizabeth Noelle-Neumann to entail the process of public opinion formation whereby an individual will refrain from expressing opinion whenever he/ she faces uncertainty over his viewpoints. The lack of self certainty is said to be influenced by social environment; Social environment is more influenced by media, and individuals who
Popular issues may also be influenced by opinion leaders through turning an unpopular issue into a national one by use of catch phrases and symbols. Opinion leaders may be members of the social environment. The interest groups and opinion leaders strongly rely on the media to influence the opinions of the people. The role of public opinion is dependent on the issue and does not dictate the details of government policies but rather sets the boundaries for policy makers to operate on. The policy makers will engage in satisfying a widespread demand while at the same time avoiding decisions that may prove to be unpopular.
The gatekeepers have to stay clear and be correct about the information, and stay clear of judgement and describe reality without embellishment (Kuusik, 2010, The Role of the Media in Peace Building). Core assumptions Core assumptions means that the journalist try to select a topic and try to get the audience attention to believe in that topic that they perform. The gatekeepers try to affect the audience about how they should feel about the topic. They are trying to build the social structures. The gatekeepers try to make the audience think in one way compare to another meaning or statement.
It is the theory which explains of how people use media for their need and gratification. In other words we can say this theory states what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Also this theory is contradictory to the magic bullet theory which states the audience is passive. According to uses and gratification theory, these are the people who are using the media for their specific needs. 3.
In reflecting what candidates are saying during a campaign, the mass media may well determine the important issues – that is, the media may set the “agenda” of the campaign (McCombs, 2003). Basic/core assumptions The two basic assumptions on which the agenda setting theory is based on are: 1. the press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it; 2. media concentration on a few issues and subjects leads the public to perceive those issues as more important than other issues. Agenda setting occurs through a cognitive process known as “accessibility,” which implies that the more frequently and prominently the news media covers an issue, the more that issue becomes accessible in the audience’s memory (Iyengar & Kinder, 1987). Types There are three basic types of agenda setting according to Everett Rogers and J.W. Dearing (1988): 1. public Public agenda setting focuses on the audience’s agenda 2. media media agenda setting focuses on the influence of the mass media on the audience.
Hence, government exists to serve the individual, and the government serves best when it regulates least in this system(Milton, 1868). However, in physical society, the freedom in the press or traditional media is impossible. Governments exercise regulations or censorship to govern the traditional media and avoid the freedom in the media to treat them. Following the technology improving into the digital age, the social media plays a vital role in the press industry. Many people believe that cyberspace exists with democracy and freedom.
Sociology wants you to look at why we do certain things in life. It wants you to challenge the way society affects you. In media, sociology focuses on the way in which media impacts mass audiences. The mass media plays a very important role in the transformation of societies from traditional to modern and from modern to postmodern (Devereux, 2003: 9). The media plays a key role in upholding and influencing social relations.
In fact, the Malaysian firm or organisation is essentially interested in influencing the output instead of input purposes of government, which means it pursues to decide how regulations that have already been planned shall affect the organisation. Thus, influence is directed more at the application of rules by the administrative elements of the government. In an attempt to illuminate this practice, the study will explore the kinds of communications between government and the private sector, behaviour of the private sector towards the government, and methods of influence. The focus will be fundamentally upon the development strategies of the Malaysian government, both programs with income redistribution targets. Malaysia had also provided the fascinating comparison with the western democratic states.