The teacher and the learner have distinct responsibilities in the classroom that adds to the desired success of the teaching and learning process. This will be proven by analysing the Brain-based Learning Theory supported by Jensen, The Social Learning Theory introduced by Vygotsky, Scaffolding introduced by Bruner and parts of the Theory of Second Language Acquisition proposed by Krashen. The concurrence between the principles of constructivism and the CAPS and constructivism linking with the lesson wheel will also be discussed. The Brain-based Learning Theory is based on the fact that the brain is “designed to learn in a natural accordance” (2008:4) and that the search for meaning is instinctive for the brain. Brain-based learning is about
It has become the theory of choice for many (Lumby, 2013). It is a very dominant type of leadership. Distributed leadership’s attraction in education lies in its potential to bring about school improvement (Harris, 2007). Leadership activities in the ASF development are designed to promote change in the school. Distributed leadership requires multiple levels of involvement in decision making.
Aims of education According to Schiro (1978) in the Social Efficiency Ideology the curriculum developer’s first job is to determine the needs of society. The things that will fulfil these needs are called the terminal objectives of the curriculum. The Terminal objectives refer to the observable and measureable action of people and these objectives must be stated in behavioral terms that specify observable behaviors, action capabilities, actions, skills or cognitive process. The following are the aim of education according to Social Efficiency ideology: 1. The first aim of education is to perpetuate the functioning of the society.
Curriculum evaluation is a necessary and important aspect of any national education system. It provides the basis for curriculum policy decisions, for feedback on continuous curriculum adjustments and processes of curriculum implementation. The fundamental concerns of curriculum evaluation relate to: • Effectiveness and efficiency of translating government education policy into educational practice; • Status of curriculum contents and practices in the contexts of global, national and local concerns; • The achievement of the goals and aims of educational programmes. Curriculum evaluation aims to examine the impact of implemented curriculum on student (learning) achievement so that the official curriculum can be revised if necessary and to review teaching and learning processes in the classroom. Curriculum evaluation establishes: • Specific strengths and weaknesses of a curriculum and its
Curriculum Development. Curriculum development should be viewed as a process by which meeting learners’ needs leads to improvement of learners’ learning. Therefore, curriculum developers should gather as much information as possible toward the learners’ needs. Those who are affected by the curriculum should be involved in the process of planning and then in the process of implantation and evaluation (Lunenborg and Ornstein, 2012) Reyes and Dizon (2015) and Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, and Javier (2011) claimed that there are three types of curriculum: 1) The intended curriculum – content specified by the state/ province course or at a particular grade level,district or school, which must be addressed in a particular 2) The implemented curriculum-content
Tanner and tanner (2007 pg 121) outlines their view of education that was retrieved from the Dewey Definitions of education “That reconstruction of knowledge and experience that enables the learners to grow in exercising intelligent control of subsequent knowledge and experience .Education however revolves around curriculum. However it is changing sequence of planning learning experience that must change now and then to cater for the changes that is going on in terms of content knowledge in terms of science and the society as a whole .It consists of four fundamental mechanism Goals, methods, materials and assessment. Goals are the benchmarks or expectations for teaching and learning. Methods are the instruction or strategies used to conduct the learning process. Materials are tools used to carry out the learning and teaching process.
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Curriculum is the heart of education. It plays a vital role on the development of learner’s knowledge, skills, and attitude. According to Braslavsky curriculum is an agreement among the communities, educational professionals, and the state on what learners should take on during specific periods of their lives. Furthermore, the curriculum defines "why, what, when, where, how, and with whom to learn. It is like a blood that gives life to the learning process.
1. Introduction Curriculum foundation refers to the factors that influence the minds of curriculum developers to make a decision on what to be included in the curriculum and its structure. There are certain factors which provide background information on which the curriculum developers depend to make the decisions. They may be philosophical foundations which based on nature and value systems. Psychological foundation which is based on the learners and learning theory influences the curriculum and sociological and cultural foundation which influences the curriculum from the social life, society and its culture.
A curriculum covers all the issues relating to the planning, implementation and evaluation of a series of language learning events. A special policy gives direction to a curriculum, but it also puts some parameters which confined it in some limit. In general, the concept of curriculum is complex, dynamic system, where everything is interconnected, and adopted the norms. The process of planning enacting and evaluating are interrelated and dynamic. New innovation in the curriculum is viewed as technology, because, in the process of curriculum also occurs some changes when new behaviour and organizational patterns are introduced, so the task of educational reforms must find the most efficient ways to do this, and improve our self.