Describe Schopenhauer’s notion of justice and provide a reason or two to why you would agree or disagree with such an account. I agree with Schopenhauer that compassion is the true and only basis of moral action because compassion is what shows what kind of people we really are and what our basis of moral actions are. In the text, “When an action is characterized by an extraordinary absence of compassion, it bears the certain stamp of the deepest depravity and loathsomeness” (Schopenhauer, 106). Our actions show our character. Compassion is what defines us and it shows others what we our morals are.
By the end of this essay I would like to prove that O’Neill’s account of Kant’s moral theory is a much easier and appropriate way of looking at things. Being good, in others words moral, means what? Kant is that the only thing without qualification that is good is the act of having a good will. The good will is the will to do the right thing and everything else (ie. money, courage etc) can be used for good or evil.
In the Introduction of his book, Utilitarianism, Mill remarks that it is rare that moral thinkers do not provide a list of a priori principles or offer a guiding first principle or an area of common ground. In Utilitarianism, Mill’s view is that right actions are the intention of promoting happiness while wrong actions are the products of the reverse of happiness. Happiness for Mill is a positive balance of pleasure over pain; in contrast, unhappiness is a positive balance of pain over pleasure. Mill’s focus of happiness is to point out that happiness is an end of human action. Happiness is the only thing desirable; all other things being only desirable are means to that end.
Kant goes on to write that “religious incompetence is not only the most harmful but also the most degrading of all” (109). He recognizes too the downsides that result from not questioning the higher institutions and their practices. The corruption in religion exemplifies how not thinking clearly has done
(Utilitarianism 1861) Instrumental value: when something is valuable because help us to reach some particular end. Ex. Money. (Fundamentals of Ethics) Utilitarianism seeks the most happiness. The other theory is Deontology, Immanuel Kant a German philosopher; he develops a theory that the only thing that has intrinsically value is a good will.
Dimmesdale is Wack, Man When considering the term “narcissism,” one often conjures up the image of a conceited, self-absorbed person who excessively praises their own perfection. However, narcissism as a psychological disorder is much deeper. According to licensed mental health counselor Michael Samsel, narcissism is best described as “organizing one 's life around the goal of being superior.” And yet, “superiority is not just about learning to do one or more things well, it is about hiding any evidence of imperfection in other areas” (Samsel). A narcissistic personality often causes turmoil, with the ever-present black hole of self-importance potentially manifesting into an abusive relationship. In The Scarlet Letter, a novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne, a narcissistic personality is seen in the character of Dimmesdale, the reverend in the Puritan town of 17th century Boston, and secret lover of Hester Prynne.
Not merely that the world exists but still more that it is such a miserable in melancholy world. Is the tormenting problem of metaphysics. Schopenhauer believed the role of philosophy to be “to lay bare the true nature of the world.” So as the shed array of light on the darkness of this miserable existence and in doing so provide consolation for the weak and finite human animal. All those who preceded him had failed at this project according to Schopenhauer and he believed that he alone had uncovered the true nature of the world. In doing so, he saw his philosophy as a great gift to mankind, an oasis of peace in the tragic and wretched desert of life: “Subject to the limitation of human knowledge, my philosophy is the real solution of the enigma of the world.” Schopenhauer did not envision that his philosophy would attract the
John Stuart Mill called Jeremy Bentham’s idea of egoism the “philosophy of swine,” degrading it to something that only a lower species would ever consider partaking in. This original principle that Mill disagreed with was that of the pleasure principle, the evasion of pain and harm in favor of wanting pleasure. This coincides with the harm principle of the same regard; which advocates that anything that harms you or your personal goals is bad, whereas anything that does not harm you is good. Mill would subsequently alter this definition to be more concerned with the quality of said pleasure than just the pleasure itself, because so much of egoism is a situational affair that is difficult to rank on its own objective basis. The situational
“The world is my representation” (Schopenhauer 1); Schopenhauer contends that at even the universe’s crux, it is not a rational place, but merely a chaotic abyss made into what one makes of it. Having recognized the errors of his philosophical mentors, Plato and Kant, Schopenhauer developed an ascetic approach to mending the errors ingrained in us through the human condition, which preaches that in a world full of pain and suffering, human beings must combat natural desires to attain tranquility and a disposition warranting widespread magnanimity. Although regarded as a categorical pessimist, Schopenhauer endorsed methods, implementing artistic, moral and ascetic systems of cognizance, to appease the fundamentally painful and tenuous circumstances
Human nature is under attack: Xunze might have been right, human nature is after all evil, a selfish moment which needs to be strictly regulated. Or maybe not, Mencius might as well be the one who better understood it: human nature is actually good, men tend to have feelings of solidarity but ideology spoiled it. Scar Literature steps out from the dialectic human nature-Marxism, freeing literature itself from the determinist belief that human behaviors and feelings were determined by class interest, and that alienation has to be intended as political or due to economical exploitation. Human feelings and actions are much more than this, it is a complex entangles of consideration, characterization, interior construction, impression, irrational impulses which, it seems to be the conclusion, even though reality is absurd, man is still free. Scar Literature cunningly contains what Baudelaire would have called a double simultaneous postulation, the capacity to refer to different contexts.